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    遼河口區徑流對污染物漂移擴散的影響

    時間:2019年06月25日 所屬分類:推薦論文 點擊次數:

    摘要:基于MIKE3三維數值模型,本文將水動力模塊與水質模塊耦合,模擬了遼東灣海域無機氮DIN的濃度分布,并探討了遼河徑流變化對無機氮濃度分布的影響。模擬結果表明:遼東灣無機氮DIN經歷了秋、冬季積累,春、夏季消耗的過程,濃度從東北至西南方向呈遞減趨勢

      摘要:基于MIKE3三維數值模型,本文將水動力模塊與水質模塊耦合,模擬了遼東灣海域無機氮DIN的濃度分布,并探討了遼河徑流變化對無機氮濃度分布的影響。模擬結果表明:遼東灣無機氮DIN經歷了秋、冬季積累,春、夏季消耗的過程,濃度從東北至西南方向呈遞減趨勢,東北區域遼河口和大遼河口處為無機氮高濃度區;在河流輸入無機氮濃度不變的情況下,遼河強水動力條件會使整個灣內污染物濃度增加,加劇水體污染,弱水動力條件在一定程度上可以改善海域水質狀況。

      關鍵詞:遼東灣;無機氮(DIN);濃度;徑流

    海洋環境科學

      渤海,地處太平洋西部,通過渤海海峽與黃海相連,是中國最大的內海。遼東灣位于渤海東北部,西起六股河口,東至遼東半島西側長興島,海域面積約1.4萬km2,平均水深只有20m,其三面環陸,一面臨海,屬于半封閉式海灣[1-2]。作為渤海重要的三大海灣之一,由于其獨特的地理位置和持續增長的環境問題,遼東灣已引起了很多海洋學者的研究興趣。

      近年來,隨著沿海城市的快速發展,排入海中的陸源污染物不斷增加,其中大量的污染物質來自入海河流的輸入,使得遼東灣地區的海洋環境污染加劇[3]。目前,遼東灣的污染程度已嚴重影響了周圍地區的經濟發展,對該海域污染物輸移規律進行研究,可為海洋環境治理提供一定的參考依據。在污染物輸運數值模擬方面,許多學者進行了大量研究。

      張學慶[4]等建立三維污染物平流—擴散模型,模擬了膠州灣污染物濃度分布。RuiLiu[5]等基于水齡概念,應用FVCOM數值模型研究了水動力因素對輸運過程的影響。顧杰[6]等通過建立潮流、污染物輸運數學模型,模擬了洪枯季曹妃甸海域化學需氧量變化規律。王昆[7]等應用POM數值模型對遼東灣海域污染物時空分布進行了模擬。

      李明昌[8]將海域生態模型(ODEM模型)與數據驅動模型理論相結合建立了海域內部污染物濃度和模型參數之間的關系。李曰嵩[9]等利用FVCOM水質模型模擬了上海市四大排污口的污染物質在長江口的擴散分布。本文基于MIKE3數值模型對遼東灣海域水動力環境進行數值模擬,在此基礎上耦合ECOLab水質模塊模擬遼東灣無機氮濃度分布特征,并重點分析遼河口徑流對遼東灣水質的影響。

      1材料與方法

      1.1模型簡介

      本文采用由丹麥水資源及水環境研究所(DHI)開發的三維數值模型MIKE3中的水動力模塊和ECOLab水質模塊建立潮流、污染物輸運數學模型。水動力模塊是整個MIKE3FlowModel的計算基礎,該模塊從三維不可壓縮的雷諾平均的Navier-Stokes方程出發,采用流體靜力學和Boussinesq近似假定,包含連續性方程、動量方程、溫度方程、鹽度方程和密度方程[10]。該模塊采用單元中心有限體積法和非重疊的三角形網格,能較好地進行對海域復雜地形的模擬計算。ECOLab水質模塊與對流、擴散模塊相結合描述污染物的輸運過程。

      1.2模型設置

      為了準確得到遼東灣開邊界處的潮位、溫度和鹽度,采用大、小模型嵌套的模擬方法。大尺度模型包含整個渤海及部分黃海區域,范圍大致為117.5°E~122.5°E、37°N~41°N。計算區域三角形網格總數為5806,節點數為3137,垂向均分為10個sigma層,模型計算網格、研究區域及測站分布。小尺度模型計算范圍大致為120.3°E~122.5°E、39.9°N~41°N,計算區域三角形網格總數為2856,節點數為1536,在固邊界處進行局部加密以更好地擬合復雜的地形岸線條件。

      1.3模型驗證結果

      1.3.1水動力驗證結果

      選取2009年8月的模擬結果,與9個代表性潮位測站的潮汐表值和4個代表性潮流測站的實測資料進行對比,以驗證模型的有效性。總體來看,模型能準確地反映大模型的水動力特性,可用于為小模型的數值計算提供水動力邊界條件。

      1.3.2溫度、鹽度驗證結果

      總體來看:模擬結果與實測數據[16]吻合較好,且隨時間變化趨勢基本一致;表層溫度隨季節變化顯著,且驗證效果較表層鹽度好;鹽度隨季節變化較小,7月、8月受到徑流和降水影響鹽度降低,之后鹽度又逐漸升高。從表層溫度分布圖可以看出:渤海海域冬季呈三灣(渤海灣、遼東灣和萊州灣)溫度低于中部海域的分布特點,最低溫度出現在遼東灣地區;夏季分布特點為三灣溫度高于中部海域。從表層鹽度分布圖可以看出:冬季鹽度與夏季鹽度差別不大,夏季鹽度稍低于冬季鹽度,導致以上現象的原因主要是夏季降水增多、入海河流徑流增大;受黃河徑流影響,萊州灣鹽度處于最低水平。總體來看,模型模擬結果與實際觀測結果基本一致[17]。

      2結果與討論

      為研究徑流量變化對遼東灣水質的影響,在計算參數不變的條件下改變遼河徑流數據,分析不同徑流下表層無機氮濃度的分布特征。流量數據采用2009年流量、洪水年流量和枯水年流量[18],遼東灣DIN濃度在空間上呈現從東北處至西南處遞減、遼河口和大遼河口周圍有濃度高值區的分布特征,海域水質狀況較好,無機氮濃度低于河口周圍無機氮濃度;在時間上秋季和冬季DIN濃度較高,冬季達到最大值,春季和夏季DIN濃度較低,且夏季達到最低值,即經歷了春夏季消耗、秋冬季積累的過程。導致以上空間分布特征的原因是模型中主要考慮4條河流的DIN輸入,且絕大部分通過遼河和大遼河排放,海域處潮汐運動劇烈、水體交換能力較強,有較強的凈化能力。

      導致以上時間分布特征原因是秋季以后,海水溫度和光強逐漸降低,限制浮游植物和細菌生長,有利于DIN積累,冬季過后,太陽輻射增強、氣溫回升,有利于浮游植物和細菌生長,使得冬季積累的DIN被大量消耗。

      此外,相比于2月、5月和10月,8月份遼河口周圍無機氮濃度較海域處無機氮濃度增加明顯,水質受到的影響較海域處大,產生此現象的原因是8月份徑流增大促進淡水鋒面向外海擴展,鋒面形成后,在沒有外力的情況下,跨鋒面方向的海水運動遵循雙圈環流軌跡而無穿越鋒面的凈通量存在,阻礙無機氮向外海擴散。當遼河水動力較強時,遼東灣超出二類水質標準(0.3mg/L)的區域增大。因此,保持無機氮濃度不變的情況下,增大遼河徑流量會使遼東灣海域的水質下降,加劇環境污染。

      由于遼河徑流明顯減少,遼河輸入遼東灣無機氮總量減少,整體上2月、5月、8月和10月4個月份無機氮濃度有所降低。由于河流徑流減少引起淡水鋒面的削弱有利于無機氮向海中擴散,遼河口附近DNI濃度降低較海域明顯。當遼河水動力較弱時,遼東灣超出二類水質標準(0.3mg/L)的區域減小。因此,保持無機氮濃度不變的情況下,遼河徑流量減少,一定程度上會改善遼東灣海域的水質狀況,減小環境污染。

      3結論

      (1)遼東灣無機氮濃度在空間上呈河口處高、外海低,由東北向西南方向遞減的分布特征;在時間上呈秋、冬季高于春、夏季的分布趨勢。

      (2)在相同無機氮濃度下,遼河口徑流量增大,河流入海污染物增多,整體上遼東灣無機氮濃度增加,與海域相比,遼河口附近濃度增加明顯,水體污染加劇,水質狀況下降,遼河口徑流量減少在一定程度上可改善水質狀況。

      (3)從粒子輸運過程來看,較多粒子聚集在河口周圍,粒子數目由東北向西南方向遞減,污染物粒子濃度不變,增加或減小遼河口徑流量,整體粒子數會增加或減少,且河口周圍粒子數變化較海域處明顯。

      參考文獻:

      [1]王鵬程,張學慶,孫剛,等.基于FVCOM的遼東灣潮汐潮流數值模擬[J].海洋湖沼通報,2012(3):146-152.

      [2]HUNJ,HUANGP,ZHANGH,etal.TracingthePboriginusingstablePbisotoperatiosinsedimentsofLiaodongBay,China[J].ContinentalShelfResearch,2015,111:268-278.

      [3]WANGJ,YESY,LAWSEA,etal.SurfacesedimentpropertiesandheavymetalpollutionassessmentintheshallowseawetlandoftheLiaodongbay,China[J].MarinePollutionBulletin,2017,120(1/2):347-354.

      [4]張學慶,孫英蘭,蔡惠文,等.膠州灣COD、N、P污染物濃度數值模擬[J].海洋環境科學,2005,24(3):64-67.

      [5]LIUR,ZHANGXQ,LIANGBC,etal.NumericalStudyontheInfluencesofhydrodynamicfactorsonwaterageintheLiaoriverestuary,China[J].JournalofCoastalResearch,2017:98-107.

      相關刊物推薦:海洋環境科學(雙月刊)創刊于1982年,由國家海洋局海洋環境保護研究所暨國家海洋環境監測中心和中國海洋環境科學學會主辦。

      

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