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    沙棘果肉油脂含量與果色的相關性分析

    時間:2019年05月10日 所屬分類:推薦論文 點擊次數:

    摘要:沙棘是荒漠化防治和水土保持的重要經濟樹種,果實具有營養和觀賞價值,在鮮果肉中含有1%~5%的油脂成分,且富含多種對人體健康有益的生物活性物質,可用來探討沙棘干果肉含油率與果實顏色之間的關系。 關鍵詞:沙棘,含油率,果色,R/G值,相關性 1材料與方

      摘要:沙棘是荒漠化防治和水土保持的重要經濟樹種,果實具有營養和觀賞價值,在鮮果肉中含有1%~5%的油脂成分,且富含多種對人體健康有益的生物活性物質,可用來探討沙棘干果肉含油率與果實顏色之間的關系。

      關鍵詞:沙棘,含油率,果色,R/G值,相關性

    果樹學報

      1材料與方法

      1.1材料與試劑

      沙棘果采于黑龍江省沙棘工程技術中心,用液氮運輸,-80℃冰箱保存;石油醚(沸程30℃~60℃)分析純,國藥集團化學試劑有限公司。

      1.2儀器與設備

      HCY-10型核磁共振含油量測定儀,杭州托普儀器有限公司;FreeZone冷凍干燥機,美國Labconco公司;LABOROTA4000旋轉蒸發儀,德國Heidolph公司;GMK-706R型糖酸度測定儀,韓國G-WON公司。

      1.3方法

      1.3.1沙棘果油提取方法

      純油標樣的制備:采用索氏提取法制備純油標樣。在冷凍條件下將沙棘果肉與種子分離,等量混合各品種的果肉,經液氮研磨后立即在-55℃下真空干燥至恒重,將果肉干粉用脫脂濾紙嚴密包裝,以石油醚為浸提液、料液比1∶70(g∶mL)、提取溫度55℃、超聲輔助提取30min,在索氏提取器內回流6h,提取液在55℃下旋轉蒸發石油醚后,收集沙棘果肉純油標樣。

      樣品制備及含油率檢測:取約30g干燥的果肉純油標樣移入專用試管內,計算純油質量(準確到0.001),調諧核磁共振含油量測定儀,分別取足量的干果肉樣品添加至專用試管的刻度線,計算各樣品質量(準確到0.001),按照儀器標準操作方法測定含油量,重復3次。

      1.3.2沙棘果實總體顏色的測定

      采用苑克俊一種利用數碼相機測定蘋果果實著色的方法,專利號CN103063309A的方法進行沙棘果實總體顏色的測定。取出不同時期采摘的果實,每個時期取兩個果實,除霜后利用數碼相機拍照獲取不同時期果實圖像。將所獲取圖像導入電腦,利用Photoshop7.0軟件進行果實圖像處理。

      打開圖像后利用“魔棒工具”選取全部果實著色區域,再在“圖像”菜單下的“直方圖”選項中得到這個區域的L值(反應果實亮度)、R值(表示果實紅色)、G值(表示果實綠色),通過計算獲得R/G比值、R/L比值和G/L比值,以此來反映不同時期果實色度變化,重復2次。

      2研究方法

      選成熟期時不同顏色的種質為試驗材料,分別于2015年7月~9月期間分6個時期采摘,采摘日期分別為7月17日、7月28日、8月8日、8月19日、8月30日和9月10日,采摘的完整果實立即用錫紙包裹,置于液氮中速凍,然后,放在-80℃冰箱中保存。在相同條件下,對采摘果實進行含油量及果實總體顏色測定。利用SPSS20.0軟件計算各性狀平均值、變異系數等統計數據,應用LSD方法進行方差和相關性等數據分析。

      3結果與討論

      3.1不同時期沙棘干果肉含油率變化規律

      通過數據統計發現,品系雜56和TF2-36的果肉含油量主要呈逐漸上升趨勢,TF2-36增長幅度較快,而品系雜56增長較為緩慢。在各時期下,TF2-36的果肉含油量均顯著高于雜56(p<0.05),且含油率增加速率顯著大于雜56;雜56和TF2-36的干果肉含油量的最大增幅均發生在D2至D3時期內,在D5時期達到最高峰,分別為3.42±0.1682%和30.00±0.1585%,且分別顯著高于其他時期的果肉含油量;而D6的果肉含油量較前期有緩慢下降,此時二者的果實已經成熟。在D5至D6時期,兩個品系干果肉含油率均有所下降,可能與果實已完熟,以及營養消耗有關。

      3.2不同時期沙棘果色變化規律

      通過數據分析發現,品系雜56和TF2-36的R/G值主要呈上升趨勢,發育初期兩個品系的R/G值幾乎相同,在D3時期開始均呈快速增長趨勢,在各時期下,TF2-36的R/G值均顯著高于雜56(p<0.05),增加速率也大于雜56;TF2-36的R/G值后三個時期增速顯著高于前三個時期,在D5至D6時期內出現最大增幅;雜56的R/G值在D3至D4時期內呈最大增幅,后兩個時期變化不顯著。品系雜56和TF2-36果實顏色呈由綠變紅的趨勢,在D2時期雜56呈淺黃綠色,TF2-36呈黃綠色,從D3時期開始雜56和TF2-36進入著色期,雜56成熟期果實為橘黃色,TF2-36成熟期果實為橘紅色。

      4結論與討論

      沙棘果實的成熟伴隨著果實顏色的不斷變化,本研究選取兩種不同果色的沙棘果實,分析果實發育期間油脂含量變化與果色的關系。研究發現,利用數碼相機拍照測定果實色度變化趨勢與果油積累趨勢呈相關性,雜56含油率與R/G值呈極顯著正相關,TF2-36果實含油率與R/G值呈顯著正相關,即隨著R/G值的不斷上升果實含油量不斷增加。

      參考文獻

      [1]丁健,關瑩,阮成江,等.沙棘果油提取工藝的正交試驗優化及其脂肪酸組分測定[J].食品科學,2016,37(02):13.

      [2]OOMAHBD.沙棘油脂[J].國際沙棘研究與開發,2005,9(01):1-14.

      [3]李猛,王雷存,任小林,等.陜西地區紅富士蘋果冠層果實品質差異及相關性分析[J].果樹學報,2010,27(06):859-863.

      果樹種植論文刊物推薦:《果樹學報》是農業部主管,中國農業科學院鄭州果樹研究所主辦的國家級果樹專業學術期刊,中文園藝學核心期刊,中國科技核心期刊。國際刊號ISSN 1009-9980,國內刊號CN 41-1308/S。讀者對象為本學科的科研人員、大專院校師生、各級管理干部及具有一定文化程度的果樹(西甜瓜)栽培者。

      

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