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    活塞應力應變分析與加工質量控制方法研究

    時間:2019年03月21日 所屬分類:推薦論文 點擊次數:

    摘要:從活塞鑄造成型過程中產生的鑄造應力出發,分析了加工應力和裝夾應力和切削應力的產生,選擇了合適的檢測設備及方法,實現對活塞毛坯的應力應變測量以及裝夾和切削過程中活塞的應力應變的測量,并給出了合理性的解決方法。能實現對活塞的加工過程進行模

      摘要:從活塞鑄造成型過程中產生的鑄造應力出發,分析了加工應力和裝夾應力和切削應力的產生,選擇了合適的檢測設備及方法,實現對活塞毛坯的應力應變測量以及裝夾和切削過程中活塞的應力應變的測量,并給出了合理性的解決方法。能實現對活塞的加工過程進行模擬,可以研究加工過程中活塞應力應變的動態變化規律,為改善工藝,提高加工精度和獲得更高的加工質量提供指導。

      關鍵詞:活塞,應力,加工

    內燃機與動力裝置

      活塞是柴油發動機的重要零件之一,其性能的好壞直接影響到柴油發動機的工作可靠性和耐久性。活塞裙部是活塞的重要組成部分,它的加工質量直接影響到活塞的性能,從而影響整個柴油發動機的服役性能。

      1發展現狀

      我國在小功率中、高轉速或大功率中、低轉速柴油機的研究已具有相當的基礎,但在同時兼有高速/超高速和大功率等特點的高性能柴油動力裝備方面,由于其重要零部件和動力裝置子系統在先進設計和精密/超精密加工以及系統集成技術方面的限制,我國的總體水平和先進國家相比仍然差距較大。在美國,活塞-缸套系統的精密加工技術作為高性能柴油機設計制造的核心技術模塊之一,受到了美國政府部門的持續性支持。

      2存在的主要問題

      活塞、缸套和缸蓋等是活塞組-缸套系統的關鍵部件,因各部件結構特殊,活塞組的結構復雜、壁厚變化較大,其在鑄造過程中導致無法順序凝固,內部疏松較多,銷孔無法鑄出,鑄造難度大。活塞靠近燃燒室的頂部工作面、活塞銷座部位經常存在縮孔、縮松缺陷,此兩處導致鑄件廢品率較高,成品率低,無法滿足生產需要,因此主要依賴于進口。

      目前工藝條件下,由于活塞頂部與內澆道連接,充型結束時該部位屬于高溫區域,從而活塞頂部存在熱節。凝固過程中,鑄件薄壁處冷卻速度快,活塞頂部熱節處自身收縮也增大,同時其周邊薄壁部位共晶凝固時對熱節部位鐵液有抽吸作用,較小的石墨化膨脹不足以彌補凝固收縮,從而活塞頂部易出現縮孔縮松。

      3研究內容及解決方法

      (1)鑄造過程應力與應變的預測和控制。

      借助有限元軟件進行建模,對活塞毛坯充型凝固過程進行數值模擬仿真計算,預測鑄造過程活塞毛坯的應力應變分布情況,研究鑄造過程中的應力應變產生及變化規律,實現對鑄造過程活塞毛坯的應力應變進行控制。

      (2)活塞制造過程中應力應變的測量。

      采用鉆孔法測量毛坯殘余應力。通過對毛坯關鍵部位鉆孔,并貼上應變片,通過應變儀測得應變片的應變變化情況,通過計算機軟件分析得到該鉆孔處應力分布情況;通過對毛坯關鍵部位進行多點鉆孔操作,進而求得毛坯上多點應力分布狀況。

      (3)加工過程應力與應變的預測與控制。

      借助有限元軟件建立活塞的三維模型,通過改變切削加工工藝參數及材料特性參數,得到活塞表面的應力應變變化規律。基于數值分析及統計學原理,建立工藝參數與活塞加工過程應力應變的映射關系模型,從而實現對加工過程中活塞的應力應變的預測。通過模擬不同加工參數條件下的活塞切削加工過程,得到活塞表面的應力應變分布,以便選擇合適的工藝參數使活塞的應力應變減小。根據仿真模擬結果,調整實際切削加工過程中的工藝參數,測量加工后活塞的應力應變以修正活塞應力應變的預測與控制模型。

      (4)夾緊過程應力與應變的預測與控制。

      基于有限元軟件建立夾具與活塞的三維模型,通過改變夾緊塊的位置及夾緊力的大小等參數,分析不同夾緊方式下活塞表面應力應變的變化規律。基于數值分析及統計學原理,建立夾緊過程中活塞的應力應變的預測與控制模型。通過反演得到能夠有效減少活塞應力應變時的夾緊方式、夾緊位置及夾緊力的大小參數。根據仿真模擬結果,在實際加工環境中對活塞的夾緊方式、夾緊位置及夾緊力大小進行試驗,獲得活塞的應力應變情況,以修正夾緊過程中活塞應力應變的預測與控制模型。

      (5)環境溫度對應力應變影響規律的預測。

      設計正交試驗,對不同環境溫度下的活塞加工應力應變進行測量。根據實驗測量結果,利用計算機軟件模擬溫度變化與活塞應力應變的非線性映射關系模型。

      (6)加工過程中活塞應力應變的動態仿真。

      基于有限元分析軟件,考慮活塞毛坯的殘余應力,集成環境溫度、切削加工與裝夾之間的耦合關系,建立活塞毛坯的三維模型,設定實際加工中的材料特性參數和加工參數等,模擬活塞的切削加工過程,分析活塞應力應變的分布情況,優選能有效提高活塞加工質量的工藝參數。

      4結語

      根據活塞工藝加工的特點及成型特點,選擇了合適的檢測設備及方法,實現對活塞毛坯的應力應變測量以及裝夾和切削過程中活塞的應力應變的測量。可以通過仿真模擬和實驗驗證相結合,研究活塞切削加工過程中應力應變的分布情況。分析了加工過程中影響應力應變的原因,研究了裝夾對活塞應力應變的影響;分析了環境溫度對活塞應力應變的影響。基于上述分析,可以對活塞的加工過程進行模擬,能研究加工過程中活塞應力應變的動態變化規律,為我們調整工藝參數、形成穩定的工藝路線,提高加工精度和獲得更高的加工質量提供指導。

      參考文獻:

      [1]曹煥章,李征兵,秘君梅.內燃機活塞銷的應力、應變計算分析[J].內燃機與配件,2012,(9):4-6.

      [2]田維安.連桿旋壓襯套進油孔形狀對襯套應力應變影響[J].建筑工程技術與設計,2016,(28):1626-1627.

      [3]童思藝.利用鑄件余熱減少鑄造殘余應力[J].鑄造,2008,(5):509-512.

      [4]劉書群.鑄造件切削加工殘余應力及變形機理研究[J].組合機床與自動化加工技術,2010,(3):22-24.

      相關期刊推薦:內燃機與動力裝置文章通過率高!是由山東省機械工業辦公室主管,山東省內燃機研究所主辦的機械類期刊。

      

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