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    政法論文

    我國商業秘密保護的完善及意見

    時間:2019年04月12日 所屬分類:政法論文 點擊次數:

    摘要:我國商業秘密保護的法律已經初具體系,但是并不完整,分散在各部法律之中,并且相關法律條文規定都有待完善化,系統化,規范化,對于商業秘密權利人利益的保護有待加強,對于商業秘密侵權行為的打擊力度也有所不夠。企業對于商業秘密的保護管理也存在很

      摘要:我國商業秘密保護的法律已經初具體系,但是并不完整,分散在各部法律之中,并且相關法律條文規定都有待完善化,系統化,規范化,對于商業秘密權利人利益的保護有待加強,對于商業秘密侵權行為的打擊力度也有所不夠。企業對于商業秘密的保護管理也存在很多問題。因此,必須盡快完善我國的商業秘密法律體系,加強企業對于商業保護的意識,建立完善的商業秘密保護管理體系,積極運行合理的商業秘密管理機制,在借鑒國外先進立法經驗以及相關管理學知識的基礎上,建設一套全面的商業秘密保護法律體系,使得商業秘密在我國得到充分有效的保護。

      關鍵詞:商業秘密;企業規制建議;商業秘密管理;立法建議

    法制與社會發展

      商業秘密的定義、特征:我國《反不正當競爭法》規定,所謂商業秘密,是指不為公眾所知悉,能為權利人帶來經濟利益、具有實用性并經權利人采取保密措施的技術信息和經營信息,這里的“權利人”,是指依法對商業秘密享有所有權或者使用權的公民、法人或者其他組織。該定義明確了商業秘密具有秘密性、非物質性、商業實用性的特征。

      保護商業秘密的原因:第一,商業秘密具有一定的經濟價值。知識和信息是知識經濟時代的貨幣。在當代,人們一般的都認為商業秘密是一種財產。商業秘密也由于未能被披露或使用,為他人所公知,因而具有實際或潛在的經濟價值。一家工業企業商業秘密的潛在喪失,意味著其現存市場領導地位的潛在喪失和在所屬領域中作為市場開拓者和市場領導者的優勢地位的喪失,而其商業秘密一旦喪失,對其就構成了不可挽回的損失。由此也可以看出商業秘密巨大的價值含量。故商業秘密也因其經濟價值而成為特定保護的對象。

      第二,商業秘密泄露的風險的加大。在經濟全球化、大數據等時代背景商業秘密泄露的風險也大大增加,企業特別是創新型企業越來越多的面臨其商業秘密以不正當手段被獲取、使用和披露的風險。第三,商業秘密的泄露會給市場帶來一系列的問題。商業秘密的泄露會導致企業在從事商事創新活動的激勵機制遭到破壞,從而導致創新領域投資的減少,新技術無法發揮其作為經濟增長、就業增加的驅動力等問題,進而對市場經濟的高速、順利運行造成一定程度的影響。

      侵犯商業秘密行為的界定:侵犯商業秘密罪是指侵犯商業秘密權利人的商業秘密,對其造成重大損失的行為。該罪的構成要件是,第一,侵犯商業秘密的主體是自然人(即有十六歲并且具有完全刑事責任能力)或者法人和組織。第二,侵權人在主觀心態上是故意的,第三,本罪侵犯的客體是他人的商業秘密權。第四、本罪的客觀方面表現為侵犯商業秘密權利人的商業秘密,對其造成重大損失的行為。我國《刑法》第219條規定的行為有四種。

      (一)、盜竊、利誘、脅迫、或者以其他不正當手段獲取權利人的商業秘密;(二)、披露、使用或者允許他人以前項手段獲取權利人的商業秘密的;(三)、違反約定或者違反權利人有關保守商業秘密的要求,披露、使用、或者允許他人使用其所掌握的商業秘密的;(四)、明知或者應知前款所列的行為,獲取、使用或者披露他人的商業秘密。

      如何保護商業秘密:建設統一的商業秘密保護法律體系。現階段我國采用分散式的商業秘密立法模式,對于商業秘密的法律規定見于《反不正當競爭法》、《民法總則》、《合同法》、《刑法》、《勞動法》《民事訴訟法》等相關法律條文,分散式立法存在諸多弊端,尤其是在大數據的背景之下,沒有完善的商業秘密保護法體系,容易使得關于商業秘密保護的問題比如云服務上的商業秘密范圍難以界定,出現一定的法律空白,沒有統一的商業秘密保護法體系,亦容易使得司法審判人員在適用法律上因為不同法律規范立法宗旨的理解不同,而無法有效的保護商業秘密權利人的合法權益。

      對于企業來說,一方面,依法建立完善的商業秘密管理體系,形成完整的商業秘密管理流程。每個企業都應該根據自身不同的經營狀況,對于特有的具有價值的商業信息進行專項保護。做到預防積極,控制嚴格,管理完善,積極落實商業秘密保護工作,形成完整的商業秘密管理體系。

      另一方面,需要培養企業的知識產權文化,企業良好運行商業秘密管理體系需要企業員工對本企業的知識產權文化進行認同,再企業員工了解到知識產權的重要性,認識到商業秘密的重要性的時候,他們亦會對保護商業秘密形成一定的意識。同時,對于企業文化的建設有利于企業員工自覺養成保守商業秘密的習慣,有助于企業商業秘密管理體系的積極運行。

      再則,應該制定企業商業秘密糾紛的應急預案,及時做好維權措施。企業可能因為某種原因出現商業秘密泄露的情況,也可能因為某種原因陷入侵犯他人商業秘密的嫌疑當中,對于這些情況,企業應該提前做好從員工的招聘選拔到企業對商業秘密的及時檢查,檢索相關相近領域的情報信息等各部分的應急預案。

      [參考文獻]

      [1]蘇洋.淺議企業商業秘密保護.CONTEMPORARY.ECONMICS.NO.6,Feb,2016.

      [2]陳佳,李宇蔚.我國商業秘密保護現狀及建議[J].法制與社會,2018.2(上).

      [3]賞武雙.美國判例法:商業秘密價值性的確定與證明[J].美國判例法,85-86.

      [4]劉瑛,耿雨亭.大數據背景下的商業秘密保護[J].北京工業大學學報(社會科學版),2017,6,17(3).

      政法類刊物推薦:《法制與社會發展》創刊于1995年,是由國家教育部主管、吉林大學主辦的法學學術刊物。該刊原為綜合性的法學學術刊物,從2004年起改為理論法學學術刊物。該刊主編為張文顯教授,顧問為鄧正來教授。

      

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