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    對合唱鋼琴伴奏若干問題的思考

    時間:2019年06月04日 所屬分類:文學論文 點擊次數:

    摘要:合唱是集體演唱多聲部聲樂作品的藝術門類,是音樂藝術中的一種重要的形式。鋼琴伴奏是合唱整體不可分割的組成部分。20世紀以來,鋼琴伴奏藝術這一形式得到了發展和完善,鋼琴伴奏是最為常見的一種藝術形式。紅花還需綠葉襯是人們用來比喻鋼琴伴奏對作

      摘要:合唱是集體演唱多聲部聲樂作品的藝術門類,是音樂藝術中的一種重要的形式。鋼琴伴奏是合唱整體不可分割的組成部分。20世紀以來,鋼琴伴奏藝術這一形式得到了發展和完善,鋼琴伴奏是最為常見的一種藝術形式。“紅花還需綠葉襯”是人們用來比喻鋼琴伴奏對作品最要部分所起的作用,它不僅只是一種音樂背景,而是整個合唱作品中不可分割的一部分。

      關鍵詞:合唱;鋼琴伴奏;鋼琴即興伴奏

    民族藝術研究

      鋼琴伴奏是合唱最常見的伴奏形式,是合唱表演整體的重要成員,合唱與伴奏是相輔相成的,是一個有機的整體。鋼琴伴奏不僅是確定音高的作用,而是根據音樂的需要,強化旋律,準確的表達出歌曲的情感。給予合唱隊員和聲支持,聲部層次的豐富,起著烘托,補充合唱音響的作用。一個好的伴奏能使整體合唱效果錦上添花,一個差的伴奏則起到畫蛇添足的效果。鋼琴伴奏與合唱,指揮能否默契配合,對合唱作品的藝術表現有很大的影響。

      一、合唱鋼琴伴奏的前期準備工作

      (一)鋼琴伴奏應具備的素質

      作為一個鋼琴伴奏,需要有基本的音樂文化素養和作品分析的能力。首先鋼琴基礎好是一個基本必要的條件,可以勝任任何難度的鋼琴伴奏譜,有良好的鋼琴觸鍵手法以及對踏板的運用,其次,識譜快也是一個非常重要的條件。最后,鋼琴伴奏需要有同指揮和合唱隊員合作的意識。在完成一首作品時,鋼琴伴奏者需要傾聽合唱的各個聲部,能用正確的意圖去表現指揮給的提示,手勢和作品記號,鋼琴伴奏的起與收必須要落在指揮的手勢下,因此,鋼琴伴奏與指揮必須要高度統一。

      (二)音樂會中鋼琴伴奏的前準備工作

      在準備一場音樂會的伴奏時,首先,要細致分析每一首作品,熟悉作品,了解作品的風格,從歌曲的曲風,民族性,地域性或地方民歌進行了解。在拿到鋼琴譜后,標好小節數,以便配合指揮以及合唱隊員的排練。對鋼琴譜進行分析,了解作品的體裁,結構,技術難度并找出全區高潮部分。其次,伴奏的前奏,間奏以及尾奏部分時,是鋼琴伴奏的獨奏表現形式。

      此時,鋼琴處于主導地位,速度,力度,音色等對合唱整體效果表現有重大影響,所以,伴奏在前準備工作時,對于這部分的演奏技巧需要多花時間。最后,要多聆聽合作者意見。怎樣同指揮與合唱隊員磨合。除了伴奏者自己對作品的理解處理外,要理解指揮對作品的處理和對作品本身藝術含義的理解。在排練前鋼琴伴奏者應與指揮多溝通,指揮對伴奏者特殊要求以及對作品的處理。除此之外,伴奏者也要多與合唱隊員交流,了解他們的速度以及呼吸氣口等要求。

      二、鋼琴伴奏與指揮、合唱人員三者之間的關系

      合唱是由鋼琴伴奏、合唱人員以及指揮三者構成的,在多數時間上,指揮是處于主導地位的,是整個合唱藝術的“三軍統帥”,鋼琴伴奏必須在合唱指揮下進行。但在鋼琴伴奏處于前奏、間奏、尾奏時,鋼琴則處于主導地位。合唱與鋼琴伴奏的關系是相輔相成的,并非可有可無,鋼琴伴奏是合唱的一部分,主要作用在于給予合唱隊員和聲的支持,增強聲部力量,充分發揮器樂表現力以及音域寬廣的優勢,起烘托合唱的作用。但不論是起渲染,呼應作用的前奏、間奏、尾奏還是曲中的伴奏,都應做到與合唱形成統一平衡的關系。在所有音響關系中,鋼琴應烘托人聲走,要適度的突出合唱聲部。所以,伴奏要注意與合唱的平衡,伴奏者不可自己彈自己的,要與合唱隊有融合度,不可喧賓奪主。

      三、以合唱作品《南屏晚鐘》為例的鋼琴伴奏作品分析

      合唱作品《南屏晚鐘》寫的是一位年輕的少女于森林游玩,巧遇中意對象,一時間情竇初開,充滿愛的情誼,等到她鼓起勇氣上前搭話,突然下起無情大雨,心中的他便失去蹤影,可相思種在了心里,如歌詞所說“匆匆走進森林中”在上次相遇的地方等待奇跡出現,再見對象卻是“看不到他的行蹤”失望傷心,產生“相思有什么用”的念頭,聽敲那南屏晚鐘,催醒了相思夢,最后走出森林中看到了夕陽紅。

      全曲開頭引子部分的旋律是采用了A段的曲調,以向下三度模進后組成,引子起烘托作用,為全曲悠揚輕快的情緒作了鋪墊。“匆匆走進森林中,森林它一叢叢”,A段以輕快的情緒,合唱以動態的形式開始,鋼琴伴奏多用柱式和弦,以增強合唱表演的藝術感,使音響效果生動立體。聲音輕巧活潑,以烘托人聲歡快的情緒。

      最后歌詞中“匆匆走進森林中”,又到第一次相遇的地方,卻等不到相思對象的出現,由此失望傷心。B段開始“南屏晚鐘隨風飄動”合唱以靜態形式,抒情的情緒,伴奏以分解和弦為主,主旋律安排在上,這種音型分解和弦可以使演奏更靈活有力,使和聲充滿動人旋律。以烘托人聲抒情,兒女相思的情緒。

      四、從合唱鋼琴伴奏看鋼琴教育

      鋼琴的演奏技能是我們所要掌握的重點,只有通過扎實的基本功訓練,才能展現出音樂的情緒與美感。對高質量以及高難度的作品進行更好的詮釋。我們在鋼琴教學中,基本功訓練主要指關于“手指”的訓練,是彈奏一切技術的技巧練習的基礎。在現代教學中,鋼琴即興伴奏已成為將來走向工作崗位實用性最大的技能,所以,我們在鋼琴教學中也要注重培養學生即興伴奏的能力。

      《哈農·練指法》是所有學習鋼琴者都熟悉的教材。這本書的主要目的是使練習者手指靈活有力,手腕松動自如。《哈農·練指法》這本書的節奏和識譜都比較簡單,所以,我們在練習《哈農·練指法》時,可適當的加入轉調練習,加強即興伴奏的能力,為以后鋼琴伴奏打下夯實的基礎。五、結語鋼琴有“樂器之王”的美譽,將鋼琴與合唱結合起來,不僅豐富了合唱的和聲音響效果,也拓展了合唱表演的表現領域,增強了合唱藝術的魅力。最后,“紅花還用綠葉扶”是人們用來比喻鋼琴伴奏對作品重要部分所起的作用,它不僅只是一種音樂背景,而是整個合唱作品中不可分割的一部分。

      [參考文獻]

      [1]郭義玲,李丹丹.淺談高師鋼琴教學中手指的基本功訓練[J].藝術研究,2007,03.

      [2]高奉仁.合唱指揮與排練[M].高等教育出版社,2003,8.

      [3]李金波.合唱指揮藝術基礎學[M].北京:中國戲劇出版社,2013,6.

      相關刊物推薦:民族藝術研究以馬克思列寧主義、毛澤東思想、鄧小平理論、三個代表為指導思想;立足于云南豐富多彩的民族文化資源,從理論上進行一些探討、研究。面向國內外一切有志于民族文化藝術研究的讀者、作者;為云南培養民族文化藝術方面的理論人才。

      

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