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    試論蒙古族民歌的發展與演變

    時間:2019年04月17日 所屬分類:文學論文 點擊次數:

    摘要:民歌是中國音樂發展過程中的瑰寶,是集中展現中華民族精神以及民俗風貌的重要載體。在歷史發展的過程中,各個民族都形成了具有本民族特色的民歌,并且其隨著社會的進步與發展,其民歌形態及特點也發生著相應的變化。基于此,本文就從蒙古族民歌入手,對

      摘要:民歌是中國音樂發展過程中的瑰寶,是集中展現中華民族精神以及民俗風貌的重要載體。在歷史發展的過程中,各個民族都形成了具有本民族特色的民歌,并且其隨著社會的進步與發展,其民歌形態及特點也發生著相應的變化。基于此,本文就從蒙古族民歌入手,對其發展及演變進行了重點探索。

      關鍵詞:蒙古族;民歌;發展;演變

    大眾文藝

      蒙古族作為民族大家庭中的一員,其不僅有著悠久的民族歷史,還具有著極其豐富的民族藝術,比如民歌、民族舞蹈等等。在廣闊富饒的大草原上,蒙古族人民往往通過載歌載舞的形式來直接表達人民對于美好生活的熱愛,特別是蒙古族民歌,以其悠揚高亢的曲調以及豐富的內容,不但向我們表現了蒙古族人民對于美好生活的熱愛,還像世人展示蒙古族氣勢恢宏的歷史,在反映蒙古風土人情方面發揮著非常積極的意義。

      一、蒙古族民歌的起源

      蒙古族民歌作為蒙古族民族文化中的重要組成部分,是蒙古族人們展示其美好生活愿景、抒發自身情感以及記錄民族發展的重要載體,在像世人展現民族文化方面發揮著非常重要的作用。就蒙古族民歌而言,主要起源于蒙古族祖祖輩輩長期的生產生活實踐過程當中。在其實際的起源發展過程中,蒙古族民歌大概經歷了以下幾個階段。

      首先是部落階段,對于蒙古族而言,其祖先大多是以部落及氏族的形式進行生產生活,主要分布在額爾古納河流域的山林地區,生產生活方式也大多是以狩獵和采摘為主,在這一時期,蒙古族民歌主要是以狩獵歌曲、短調歌曲為主要表現形式,具有強烈舞蹈性;在內容方面,也主要是以狩獵活動及寓言性敘歌為主。[1]

      總結來說,在這一時期,蒙古族民歌有著較強的樸素性及原始性。其次是遷移階段,其主要指的就是公元7世紀,生活在額爾古納河的蒙古族部落遷移至鄂嫩河和克魯倫河一代,并且在這一時期,其主要的生產方式及經濟形態也發生著較大的變化,蒙古族的畜牧業得到了較大的發展,由于生產生活環境的變化,蒙古族民歌的風格也逐漸確立,長調民歌出現。最后是新時代階段。所謂的新時代,指的就是19世紀末至今。

      自19世紀末,一部分蒙古族游牧民眾開始脫離傳統的游牧生活,其生產生活方式也逐漸從游牧向農業過度,并且開始定居。在這一背景下,蒙古族村落以及農牧經濟形態出現,蒙古族民歌也涌現出了諸多新的短調民歌,這種短調民歌由于是在傳統短調民歌基礎上發展起來了的,故又被成為“新短調民歌”。

      二、蒙古族民歌的具體特點及種類

      蒙古族民歌經過長期的發展,其無論是表現手法還是藝術風格都已經非常成熟。對于蒙古族民歌而言,如果按照題材分類,可以將其分為敘事、狩獵、贊歌、牧歌、兒歌、禮儀風俗、思鄉曲等等;如果依照體裁分類,則可以分為長調民歌和短調民歌兩種。對于蒙古族民歌而言,應從以下幾個方面入手,對其特點進行重點闡述。

      首先,結構音階。蒙古族民歌的結構音階主要是以中國最為傳統的民族調式體系為基礎,在音階方面,其主要是以不存在半音的五聲音階(宮、商、角、徵、羽)為主,在實際的演唱過程中,蒙古族民歌主要以羽和徵為主,其次為宮和商,角基本在蒙古族民歌中很少出現。

      其次,旋律線條。蒙古族民歌的旋律線條主要是以拱形線條和拋物線型為主。由于蒙古族民歌的音域較為寬廣,因此,在實際的表現過程中,極進或者跳進的現象經常想出現,這也是蒙古族民歌中非常獨特的一個特點。總結來說,對于蒙古族民歌而言,其主要的特點為:具有較強的曲調性和較弱的節奏性。[2]

      三、蒙古族民歌的發展與演變分析

      自新中國成立以來,中國的音樂藝術發生著巨大的變化,一批又一批優秀的音樂作品被創作并得到了廣泛的傳播。而就蒙古族民歌而言,在新時期也同樣得到了較大的進步與發展。新中國成立以后,蒙古族民歌發展演變可以分為兩個個階段,21世紀之前這一階段和21世紀之后這一階段。首先是21世紀之前。

      所謂的21世紀之前,泛指的就是從新中國成立后至2000年這一階段。對于這一階段來說,可以將其詳細劃分為改革開放之前和改革開放之后。對于改革開放之前的蒙古族民歌而言,其在這一時期的發展特點為在全國范圍內得到了有效的傳播,并且呈現出與其他藝術門類相融合的趨勢,具體代表作品有《敖包相會》、《贊歌》、《草原之夜》等等。

      自改革開放以后,民族間、國際間的文化交流及藝術融合趨勢更加明顯,蒙古族民歌也從不同的音樂形式博采眾長,并在此基礎上形成了多種多種多樣的演唱風格,這樣一來,其在表現形式方面也越來越豐富多彩。

      其次是21世紀以后。在這一階段,隨著經濟全球化及社會現代化水平的不斷提升,不同文化以及不同音樂藝術之間的交流與碰撞也日益頻繁,諸多現代性極強的蒙古族民歌作品也被廣泛的創作及傳播。對于新世紀以后的蒙古族民歌而言,其發展及演變主要呈現出音樂形式更為多樣、音樂表現更為豐富、音樂風格更加大眾化的特點,不僅如此,在這一時期,涌現出了諸多蒙古族民歌歌手,例如烏蘭托婭、鳳凰傳奇、布仁巴雅爾等等。就這一階段而言,其民歌音樂作品也非常多,較為代表性的有《套馬桿》、《月亮之上》、《吉祥三寶》等等。

      綜上所述,近年來,隨著民族間文化交流的日益頻繁以及社會的長效發展,蒙古族民歌也在原有藝術特點的基礎上,在從業人員的努力下,緊扣時代發展的脈搏,不斷對民歌進行創新,并且經過多年的努力,蒙古族民歌也得到了較大演變與發展,在為人們提供更為豐富多彩的藝術形式及滿足人們精神需求方面發揮著非常積極的意義。

      參考文獻:

      [1]樊宇紅.蒙古族民歌的發展與演變[J].北方音樂,2017,37(09):25+29.

      [2]王秀梅.淺談蒙古族民歌的特點與演唱風格[J].大眾文藝,2015(20):29.

      文學方向刊物推薦:《大眾文藝》(半月刊)曾用名(俱樂部;河北文藝;河北故事;大眾文藝(理論))1956年創刊,是由中華人民共和國新聞出版總署批準,河北省文化廳主管,河北省群眾藝術館主辦,大眾文藝編輯部編輯出版,面向國內外公開發行的全國優秀期刊,郵發代號:18-45,國外發行代號:M6113。

      

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