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    梨癭蚊在中國的蔓延與分析

    時間:2019年07月02日 所屬分類:農業論文 點擊次數:

    摘要:為了有效阻止梨癭蚊在我國的蔓延,作者對梨癭蚊已成為主要害蟲梨產區的受害情況進行匯總,探明梨癭蚊在我國的分布情況,分析梨癭蚊的蔓延因素。遠距離傳播是靠越冬幼蟲伴隨苗木調運實現的。對梨癭蚊危害區域的年最低氣溫和36月的降水量進行分析,結果

      摘要:為了有效阻止梨癭蚊在我國的蔓延,作者對梨癭蚊已成為主要害蟲梨產區的受害情況進行匯總,探明梨癭蚊在我國的分布情況,分析梨癭蚊的蔓延因素。遠距離傳播是靠越冬幼蟲伴隨苗木調運實現的。對梨癭蚊危害區域的年最低氣溫和3—6月的降水量進行分析,結果表明,梨癭蚊上升為主要害蟲的氣象條件是,冬季最低氣溫高于-18.8℃,3—6月的總降水量大于114mm。指出梨癭蚊在我國可能蔓延的區域,并根據梨癭蚊的生活習性提出防控對策。

      關鍵詞:梨癭蚊;蔓延;分析

    中國南方果樹

      梨癭蚊(Diplosissp.)屬雙翅目癭蚊科,又稱梨卷葉癭蚊、梨葉蛆、梨芽蛆、紅沙蟲。梨癭蚊在我國是新發生的害蟲,2000年以前,在我國梨產區發生范圍小,2000年后,在我國多個梨產區迅速蔓延,為害加重,上升為主要害蟲之一。

      探討梨癭蚊在我國梨產區的分布和蔓延,對控制其進一步蔓延和研究其防控措施有重要意義。對該蟲生物學特性的研究較多,已基本掌握其發生和為害規律。但有關該蟲在我國分布和蔓延的系統論述鮮有報道。筆者就梨癭蚊在我國不同梨產區消長和蔓延情況進行分析,以期為生產上控制其蔓延提供依據。

      1梨癭蚊的發生與分布

      一年發生2~4代,以幼蟲越冬,越冬場所多為2~6cm深的表土內,少數在樹皮裂縫中。主要為害梨的嫩葉,少量為害梨的花蕾。受害葉片卷成雙筒狀,影響光合作用,造成早期落葉,影響當年果品產量和質量,還影響當年的花芽分化。

      梨癭蚊最早發現于歐洲[1],現在世界各地大多數梨產區有分布。我國對此蟲的認識始于1981年,最先在安徽宣城、安慶、巢湖等地發現,現已知還有福建、廣西、貴州、河南、湖北、江蘇、江西、山東、山西、陜西、四川、浙江、重慶等13個省(市、自治區)均有分布,并成為這些地方的主要害蟲。

      梨癭蚊的為害區主要集中在長江中下游。截至2018年,梨癭蚊分布北起山西省代縣,西至四川省雙流縣,南達廣西壯族自治區富川縣,東到浙江省天臺縣。在新疆庫爾勒梨產區經2016—2018年連續3年的觀察,未發現梨癭蚊。經咨詢河北、遼寧和云南梨產區的技術人員,各處沒有梨癭蚊發生。

      2梨癭蚊在我國梨產區的發生時間

      梨癭蚊于1981年在安徽的宣城、安慶、巢湖等地梨區成主要害蟲之一,東至、涇縣、壽縣和鳳陽也有發生,蔡平是較早系統研究梨癭蚊的學者[2]。1980—1999年,先后又在湖北、浙江、山東、貴州、福建5省多地發現梨癭蚊。其間從發現到成為主要害蟲之一所需的時間各地平均5.1年,蔓延相對緩慢。

      2000—2014年,又在廣西、河南、江蘇、江西、山西、陜西、四川、重慶8省(市、自治區)多地發現,并上升成為當地梨樹主要害蟲之一。這期間梨癭蚊蔓延較快,從發現到成為主要害蟲之一所需的時間各地平均2.3年,多地還沒注意梨癭蚊哪年發現的就已成為主要害蟲之一[2~33]。

      3影響梨癭蚊蔓延的因素

      3.1依靠自身飛翔

      筆者觀察,梨癭蚊成蟲的飛翔速度同常見蚊子相當。由百度知道得知,普通蚊子的飛翔速度為0.24m/s。如果連續直線飛翔,24h梨癭蚊成蟲可飛行20km。就其壽命而言,蔡平的研究[2]指出,未行交尾產卵的雌蟲壽命24~80h,平均42.4h;未交尾的雄蟲壽命12~48h,平均34.8h。筆者曾在距有梨癭蚊發生的梨園1.9km的14層(距地面37m)住宅樓上,一晚上(20:00—21:00)連續捕捉7頭成蟲。如果借助風力,將會飛行的更遠。

      由此可見,梨癭蚊靠飛翔就有一定的蔓延能力。1981年在安徽宣城發現梨癭蚊,1984年上升為主要害蟲之一[2];在浙江杭州1984年發現,1988年上升為主要害蟲之一[7];而在江蘇昆山2010年發現,2013年上升為主要害蟲之一[26]。從這三地的直線距離分析,安徽宣城到江蘇昆山210km,浙江杭州到江蘇昆山140km,安徽宣城到浙江杭州150km。假設浙江杭州的梨癭蚊是由安徽宣城靠自行飛翔蔓延的,150km的距離用了1~3年時間。

      由此推斷,江蘇昆山的梨癭蚊無論是由安徽宣城還是由浙江杭州蔓延,都不應超過6年。而實際在江蘇昆山發現梨癭蚊是在2010年,比浙江杭州上升為主要害蟲的1988年要晚22年。因此,梨癭蚊的自行飛翊蔓延常受到阻隔而緩慢。如寄主植物相距較遠,超過50km的寄主植物空檔,梨癭蚊就不好自行飛翊跨越。

      3.2伴隨苗木調運

      從梨癭蟲的蔓延速度分析,2000—2014年間較1980—1999年間快,一個可能的原因是人為因素——苗木調運。進入21世紀,我國農業大力調整產業結構,梨樹面積迅速擴大,苗木大量的調運,越冬幼蟲靠附著在苗木根部的泥土中,被運到新的梨區,從而加速了梨癭蚊的蔓延。

      4影響梨癭蚊為害和生存的因素

      4.1寄主植物

      寄主植物僅限于豆梨和梨等梨屬植物,其中砂梨受害重,白梨輕,西洋梨更輕,杜梨幾乎不受其害。各品種之間也有差異。

      4.2土壤水分

      老熱幼蟲化蛹的主要場所是土壤,蔡平的研究[2]指出,土壤含水量15%~30%范圍內老熟幼蟲能正常化蛹羽化,在含水量0%~5%的干土里不能結繭化蛹,在含水量35%以上的濕土里,化蛹過程緩慢、羽化率低。合理灌溉的梨園,都可以滿足梨癭蚊化蛹所需的土壤水分條件。

      4.3冬季低溫和降水量錢巧琴[8]

      報道,浙江義烏華溪鄉聯五村1991年12月下旬最低氣溫降至-13℃,土壤內和枝干裂縫里越冬的幼蟲凍死率達98%以上,使1992年未發生梨癭蚊為害。可見,冬季低溫是影響梨癭蚊安全越冬的重要因素。適量的降水是老熟幼蟲脫葉入土化蛹的必要條件,如不遇適量的降水,老熟幼蟲無法從葉中出來,也不能在卷葉內化蛹。

      梨癭蚊越冬幼蟲化蛹出土、各代幼蟲脫葉入土主要在3—6月進行,因此3—6月的降水量和降水次數直接影響梨癭蚊一年中的發生量和代數。山西省晉中地區和代縣冬季平均最低氣溫都低于-13℃,這與錢巧琴[8]的報道有不小差距,推測梨癭蚊在向北方梨區蔓延時抗寒能力有所提高。

      梨癭蚊已成為主要害蟲的各梨產區,冬季最低氣溫和降水量最不利梨癭蚊生存的區域是山西省代縣,年均最低氣溫是-18.8℃,3—6月的總降水量是114mm。這兩個數據可作為梨癭蚊能否上升為梨樹主要害蟲的氣象數據,即梨癭蚊上升為主要害蟲的兩個氣象條件是:冬季最低氣溫高于-18.8℃,3—6月總降水量大于114mm。

      5可能蔓延的區域到

      2018年還沒發生梨癭蚊的梨產區,或者梨癭蚊不是主要害蟲的梨產區,如符合冬季低溫和降水量條件,有可能經3~5年上升為主要害蟲。如遼寧南部的梨產區,河北定州以南的廣大梨產區。新疆的庫爾勒和阿克蘇兩大梨產區發生梨癭蚊的可能性不大,主要是因降水太少,幼蟲無法順利完成脫葉。

      參考文獻:

      [1]GagneRJ,HarrisMO.ThedistinctionbetweenDasineuraspp.fromappleandpear[J].ProceedingsoftheEntomologicalSocietyofWashington,1998,100:445-448.

      [2]蔡平.梨癭蚊研究初報[J].安徽農學院學報,1984(1):60-65.

      [3]寇路君,王素俠.碭山地區梨癭蚊的發生規律和綜合防治[J].果農之友,2005(9):32.

      [4]周超愛,蒲東桃.梨癭蚊的發生及初步觀察[J].中國果樹,1990(4):45-46.

      [5]李國元,秦仲麒.梨癭蚊的發生規律及其防治技術[J].中國南方果樹,1997,26(6):44.

      [6]劉先琴,秦仲麒,李先明,等.湖北省砂梨主要病蟲害發生演替與防治對策[J].中國果樹,2007(6):51-53.

      [7]袁榮蘭,汪建平,林夏珍.梨卷葉癭蚊的研究[J].浙江林學院學報,1993,10(1):7-15.

      [8]錢巧琴.梨癭蚊的生物學特性及防治技術[J].浙江林業科技,1994,14(4):40-42.

      [9]王來亮.梨癭蚊對梨花的危害及防治[J].中國南方果樹,2007,36(6):70-71.

      林業刊物推薦:《中國南方果樹》(雙月刊),由農業部主管,中國農業科學院柑桔研究所主辦。ISSN 1007-1431,CN 50-1112/S。該刊是在柑桔研究所1972年創辦的內部刊物——《柑桔科技通訊》的基礎上,近40年發展、壯大而形成的。1979年5月經國家科委批準公開發行,刊名為《中國柑桔》;1996年1月經國家科委批準,更名為《中國南方果樹》。

      

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