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    農業論文

    菊科植物病蟲害調查

    時間:2019年07月02日 所屬分類:農業論文 點擊次數:

    摘要:逐株調查資源圃中98種(或品種)菊科植物的病害和蟲害發生情況。調查發現,主要病害為煤污

      摘要:逐株調查資源圃中98種(或品種)菊科植物的病害和蟲害發生情況。調查發現,主要病害為煤污病、白粉病、枯萎病、灰霉病、褐斑病、銹病、病毒病7種,其中煤污病發病株最多,占調查總數的68.1%。主要蟲害為紅蜘蛛、白粉虱、蚜蟲、菊天牛、黃胸薊馬和蝸牛6種,其中白粉虱和紅蜘蛛危害嚴重,2種病害的受害株占調查總數的81.6%。磯菊等對病蟲害有很好的抵抗能力,河南野菊等白粉虱及煤污病發生極其嚴重,調查結果為篩選抗性育種材料提供依據。

      關鍵詞:菊科;病蟲害;調查

    湖北林業科技

      病蟲害是觀賞菊花、切花菊、食(藥)用菊花生產中最主要的危害因素。隨著環保標準以及人們對食品安全意識的提高,培育各種抗病蟲的菊花新品種顯得尤為重要。目前,主要是通過雜交育種和基于轉基因技術的分子育種來培育抗病蟲新品種[1],而這兩種方法都需要先對現有品種資源進行抗病蟲的評價和篩選,并對抗病蟲機理深入研究后,再通過雜交或分子育種進行培育新的抗性品種[2]。

      因此,篩選評價抗病蟲品種資源,對抗性新品種的選育顯得尤為重要[3]。通過對資源圃98種(品種)菊科植物進行詳細的調查,在對主要病蟲害調查的基礎上對其抗性進行了初步評價,篩選出一批值得進一步深入研究的抗病蟲品種,為篩選抗性育種材料提供依據。

      1材料和方法

      1.1材料

      調查地點:南京農業大學菊花資源圃。調查對象:資源圃內種植的菊科98種(品種)。

      1.2方法

      逐株觀察。分別選取不同部位葉片或花序仔細檢查,記錄受害葉片或全株為害狀、葉片成蟲附著情況、葉背蟲卵密度等。現場記錄害蟲的蟲體蟲態和為害狀。挖掘已經枯死的植株根部周圍土壤檢查地下害蟲。將有病害狀(卷曲、霉變、發黃等)的枝葉剪切帶回實驗室利用顯微鏡進行觀察;將有蟲害狀(蟲卵、蟲孔或蟲糞)的枝葉剪切帶回實驗室進行飼養鑒定[4]。2017年10—12月,病蟲害調查頻率為每7d1次。

      蟲害危害程度分為3個等級,被害株率在10%以下,對受害菊株的正常生長基本無影響或影響較小的標記為“+”;被害株率在10%~30%之間,對受害菊株的正常生長有明顯影響的標記為“++”;被害株率在30%以上,嚴重影響受害菊株正常生長的標記為“+++”[5]。綜合病蟲危害程度分為0~4級,程度隨等級增加而增加,0級為無病蟲害,1級為輕度危害,2級為中度危害,3級為重度危害,4級為嚴重危害[6]。

      2結果與分析

      2.1病害發生種類及危害

      本次調查資源圃內98種(或品種)的菊科植物共784株單株,發現病蟲害13種,其中病害有煤污病、白粉病、枯萎病、灰霉病、褐斑病、銹病、病毒病7種,害蟲主要有紅蜘蛛、白粉虱、蚜蟲、菊天牛、黃胸薊馬和蝸牛6種。資源圃內菊科植物的煤污病發病株最多,有64個種(或品種)發病,占調查總數的68.1%。

      7種病害全部為危害葉部的病害。其中煤污病發病株在葉面和稍頂形成霉斑,嚴重者在整個葉片和稍頂布滿黑色霉層。白粉病造成落葉和枯葉[7]。枯萎病發病株的葉片失綠、萎蔫、枯死后脫落,莖稈微腫變褐。褐斑病先從植株下部葉片發病,葉片病斑散生,葉枯下垂。銹病發病株長勢弱,大量落花,部分葉片葉緣上卷、干枯。病毒病發病株表現為花葉或葉片扭曲,植株矮小[8]。

      2.2蟲害發生種類及危害

      資源圃內調查發現的菊科植物的蟲害中,食葉害蟲最多,有4種,占害蟲總數的66.7%;白粉虱和紅蜘蛛為害嚴重,有80個種(或品種)受害,占調查總數的81.6%。危害葉片的4種害蟲中,紅蜘蛛潛伏在葉背,主要通過刺吸危害葉片;白粉虱群居在嫩葉片背面,使葉片萎蔫變黃后脫落;蚜蟲主要為害嫩葉,同時也危害嫩莖、花梗、花蕾,且易引起煤污病[7];蝸牛啃食葉片,同時啃食嫩莖和花蕾,并在受害部位留下黑色糞便和分泌物[8-9]。危害莖根的菊天牛,其幼蟲蛀食莖根,成蟲產卵時咬傷莖梢,使其失水枯萎并引起折斷。危害花朵的黃胸薊馬,主要在高溫和干旱條件時易發生。

      2.3植物抗病蟲害分析

      調查發現磯菊及部分野菊品種對白粉虱和其他病蟲害都有很好的抵抗能力,受危害程度較輕。遲黃菊、滿天星、桐鄉小黃菊、河南野菊、野路菊、四倍體菊花腦、二倍體菊花腦、菊花腦等白粉虱及煤污病極其嚴重。紫花野菊及其與銀背菊的雜交后代受紅蜘蛛為害嚴重,而其他品種上紅蜘蛛為害不十分明顯。

      白花除蟲菊和紅花除蟲菊均為引進種,據植物志記載其全草提取物可以作為殺蟲劑,鮮活植物對昆蟲有驅避作用[10],但是在調查中發現其對白粉虱已經失去抗性,也可能在除蟲菊酯類殺蟲劑使用過程中導致白粉虱產生了耐藥性從而使除蟲菊本身失去了對其抵抗能力。

      3討論

      植物抗蟲性評價和篩選能為培育優良抗蟲品種提供基礎[11-13],調查中發現磯菊及部分野菊品種對白粉虱和其他病蟲害都有很好的抵抗能力,可對這些品種開展抗病蟲害機制的深入研究,有利于其在雜交育種和分子育種的應用。由于遲黃菊、滿天星、桐鄉小黃菊、河南野菊、野路菊、四倍體菊花腦、二倍體菊花腦、菊花腦等白粉虱及煤污病受危害極其嚴重,在進行菊科植物抗白粉虱和煤污病研究時,可以作為病蟲害抗性研究的負對照。由于田間觀察的初步篩選主要基于視覺觀察,沒有定量,有一定的誤差,但是對于定量深入研究有一定的指導作用。

      參考文獻:

      [1]熊威.四個菊花品種再生體系的研究及CDS基因的遺傳轉化[D].武漢:華中農業大學,2010.

      [2]王順利,戴思蘭.菊花抗白銹病品種資源鑒定與評價指標的建立[C]//北京林業大學.2010年全國觀賞園藝學術年會論文集,2010:491-494.

      [3]唐致婷.轉WRKY基因菊花的抗蚜性育種[D].南京:南京農業大學,2016.

      [4]王文平,羅光宏,陳葉.河西走廊甜葉菊田病蟲害調查初報[J].中國糖料,2014(4):67-69.

      [5]王志華,董立坤,于靜亞,等.武漢地區菊花主要病蟲害及綜合防治技術[J].湖北林業科技,2017,46(3):38-41.

      相關刊物推薦:湖北林業科技始終以服務于林業科學研究、林業經濟建設、林農致富為宗旨,面向林業科研、生產與管理,積極宣傳、報道國內外林業科技發展動態、重大科研成果及科技信息,在林業科技向現實生產力的轉化過程中起著極其重要的作用。

      

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