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    農業論文

    稻蛙共生有機栽培技術

    時間:2019年06月26日 所屬分類:農業論文 點擊次數:

    【摘要】稻田是蛙類最佳的生長場所,稻蛙共生生態養殖系統的推廣實施能夠有效促進自然資源的循環利用,能夠最大程度的提升土地的利用價值,提高生產總值,能夠在減少肥料投入的基礎上提升糧食的產出量,為農業產業發展提供低碳環保的規劃方案,本文主要從稻

      【摘要】稻田是蛙類最佳的生長場所,稻蛙共生生態養殖系統的推廣實施能夠有效促進自然資源的循環利用,能夠最大程度的提升土地的利用價值,提高生產總值,能夠在減少肥料投入的基礎上提升糧食的產出量,為農業產業發展提供低碳環保的規劃方案,本文主要從稻蛙共生有機栽培技術入手探究該模式的實際實施價值以及開展措施。

      【關鍵詞】稻蛙共生;有機栽培;生態技術

    湖南農業科學

      稻蛙共生生態養殖方式的實施主要是對稻田以及蛙類共生關系為基礎開展的一種生態養殖方式,能夠利用稻田以及蛙類之間的關系促進彼此順利生長,能夠有效降低稻田中的害蟲病害,減少水稻養殖中農藥以及化肥的用量,及能夠降低生產成本,還能夠提升水稻的生長水平,達到有機生產的目標,而稻田中的蛙類還能夠進行售賣,增加種植的經濟收入。

      1稻田選擇及改造

      1.1稻田選擇及調整

      稻蛙共生對于稻田的基本情況要求比較高,首先要求其不可處于高山夾沖位置,需確保該稻田旱季也能保證足夠的水量供應,確保水源穩定,注水及排水均可順利進行,且水分保存效果較好,稻田田埂位置需確保結實穩固,稻田的選擇對于提升稻蛙共生質量有非常重要的作用。

      稻田位置及范圍確定之后需要將其劃分為多個小田塊[1],田塊大小需根據稻田區域進行調整設計,如稻田位置為平原地區,田塊的大小可以控制在0.2hm2,如田塊位于丘陵地區,需要將田塊大小進行縮減。水稻插秧之前15天需要在稻田中施加發酵好的豬糞、牛糞或愛好則綠肥等,每hm2稻田的施肥量約為7500kg,完成后通過人工或者機械等方式將稻田處理成高25-35厘米,寬60厘米的梯形地壟,插秧之前需對地壟進行再次修復。

      地壟制作時需要對田中水量進行調整,不可全部放完,也不可存水過多,地壟方向需要根據水流方向進行調整,低臺田以及正沖田的地壟方向需要與水流方向相同,以提升注入及排水效率,但是擋風口稻田中地壟的方向需要與水流方向垂直設置,防止注水時對稻苗進行沖擊。

      1.2稻田中防逃設施以及水循環系統的設置

      由于蛙類的跳躍能力比較強,因此在稻田改造過程中需要做好防逃逸設置,可以通過尼龍網對稻田進行圍護,設置隔離帶,防止蛙類流失。在實際設置時可以將尼龍紗網埋入田埂中,填埋深度需滿足至少20厘米,地面上尼龍網的高度需要保留在1-1.2米左右,將其固定在1.5米的竹竿上[2],且防逃網設置時需要留出1米寬度的梗面,在該區域內進行蚯蚓、蠅蛆等養殖,為蛙類生長提供飼料。

      另外,需要使用1米高的黑色塑料薄膜在紗網內側進行覆蓋,防止蛙類調到紗網上受到傷害,稻田中的水循環系統需要設立在稻田之外,不可在稻田中進行設置,需要充分考慮稻田的基本情況,對進出水口進行合理設置,一般情況下進水口設置在田埂位置,出水口設置在溝渠低洼位置,根據實際的降雨量等設置進水口及排水口的大小,大部分進水口不會超過50cm,排水口不會超過80cm。

      1.3飼料喂養臺設置

      為了確保蛙類生長中的正常喂養需要設置專門的餌飼臺,一般情況下每個蛙溜中會設置一個餌飼臺,每個餌飼臺的大小基本為長2米,寬1米,材料一般為模板,且需要在模板兩側安裝泡沫板,確保餌飼臺能夠漂浮在水上。

      2蛙種放樣以及水稻種植實際操作

      2.1對蛙溝進行消毒處理

      蛙溝的消毒處理一般在蛙種放樣前10天至15天,需要將蛙溝內致病菌以及有害生物進行殺除,防止蛙種放養后出現各類疾病,常用的殺菌方式為生石灰帶水殺菌,用量為1500kg/m2[3]。

      2.2水稻品種選擇及栽培

      水稻品種在進行選擇時需要確保其具有抗倒伏、抗病害能力,且需要耐肥性比較強,水稻種植時間一般為每年的五月中旬,種植時將水稻秧苗移栽到地壟坡上,沒株水稻苗之間的距離基本為17厘米×10厘米。

      2.3蛙種品種的選擇以及放養

      蛙種在選擇時需要選擇強壯的蛙種,確保無傷病情況,挑選活動力強的蛙苗進行放養,放養前需要對蛙種進行消毒,消毒常用的藥物為食鹽水,食鹽水濃度需控制在2%-3%,浸泡消毒時間控制在5-10分鐘。為了防止蛙種活動影響稻苗的正常扎根,蛙種的放養時間需要在插秧完成后15天左右[4],確保秧苗返青后方可進行蛙種放樣,由于稻田養娃生長時間較短,因此可以放樣當前的幼蛙,蛙種的放養密度需要控制在每667m222500-30000只左右。

      3稻蛙共生有機栽培的日常維護管理

      3.1飼料喂養

      稻蛙共生飼養中的飼料可以以人工顆粒飼料為主,可在其中增加適量活泥鰍,通過泥鰍的活動帶動顆粒飼料活動,吸引蛙類的注意力,提升蛙類的飼料進食量。飼料投喂工作中需要嚴格遵守定時、定點、定質以及定量四個原則,每天飼喂次數為兩次,投喂量需控制在蛙類體重的2%為最佳。

      3.2水稻及蛙類病害防治

      蛙類在稻田中的生長可以消除稻田中的大量害蟲,因此,能夠有效降低水稻生長中的農藥施用量,如水稻在生長中出現病害情況需要及時進行處理,選擇相適合的農藥,還需防止農藥的使用對蛙類的生長造成影響,可在施藥時對蛙溝進行隔離,藥效吸收后再將其放開。蛙類病害的防治方式較為簡單,主要需要做好水質管理,確保飼料新鮮未污染即可。

      3.3成蛙捕撈

      成蛙捕撈一般在9月份,捕撈工作需在夜間進行,通過燈光的照射降低成蛙的應激反應,捕撈完成后需要及時進行放凈蛙塘中的水,為下次種植做好準備。

      4結束語

      綜上可知,稻蛙共生有機栽培技術在實際養殖中的應用能夠有效提升經濟效益,在實際養殖中需要根據實際情況做好各項維護及管理工作,穩定水稻生產,促進生態農業的穩定發展。

      參考文獻

      [1]蔣靜,郭水榮,陳凡等.稻蛙共生高效生態種養技術[J].中國水產,2016(4):73-75.

      [2]楊維剛.丘陵稻蛙共生技術要點[J].南方農業,2017,11(32):77.

      [3]魯艷紅,廖育林,聶軍等.稻—蛙生態種養技術模式研究與展望[J].湖南農業科學,2017(3):74-76.

      [4]周雪芳,朱曉偉,陳澤愷等.稻蛙生態種養對土壤微生物及無機磷含量的影響[J].核農學報,2016,30(5):971-977.

      相關刊物推薦:湖南農業科學是湖南省農業科學院、湖南省科技廳星火辦、湖南農業大學合辦的綜合性農業牧業學術刊物,是國內外重要數據庫和文摘刊物收錄文獻源的核心期刊。主要刊登我國農業各學科在應用基礎和高新技術研究方面的學術論文,主要科研成果的專題報告,各學科研究的新進展和綜合評述。

      

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