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    農業論文

    彌霧栽培對姜田小氣候及生姜生長的影響

    時間:2019年06月19日 所屬分類:農業論文 點擊次數:

    摘要:為創新生姜栽培技術模式,以傳統遮光栽培和裸地栽培為對照,研究彌霧栽培對姜田小氣候及生姜生長、產量和葉片水氣交換參數的影響。結果表明,彌霧栽培可通過增加空氣濕度,降低植株冠層氣溫及葉溫,增大葉片氣孔導度,顯著增強葉片的光合速率及蒸騰速

      摘要:為創新生姜栽培技術模式,以傳統遮光栽培和裸地栽培為對照,研究彌霧栽培對姜田小氣候及生姜生長、產量和葉片水氣交換參數的影響。結果表明,彌霧栽培可通過增加空氣濕度,降低植株冠層氣溫及葉溫,增大葉片氣孔導度,顯著增強葉片的光合速率及蒸騰速率,提高水分利用效率。彌霧栽培生姜植株地上部生長量雖不及傳統遮光栽培,但根莖生長量較大,產量可達2688.68kg·(667m2)-1,較裸地栽培增產31.30%。

      關鍵詞:生姜;彌霧栽培;小氣候;生長;產量

    西北農業學報

      光照、溫度、濕度等環境因子密切相關,對植物生長發育和形態建成具有重要影響(Piresetal.,2011)。研究發現,遮光處理可以降低環境溫度,增加空氣濕度,顯著影響植株冠層小氣候(Aberkanietal.,2008);遮光還可以減輕番茄葉片光合“午休”及對光合機構的損傷,提高光合效率(Jungetal.,1998)。

      提高空氣濕度可以緩解高溫對植物的傷害,夏季高溫時段增加空氣濕度,能夠有效提高葉片氣孔導度及凈光合速率(許大全,2002);在較高的空氣濕度下,植物葉片結構發生相應的改變,使植物具有較大的氣孔開度,有利于保持較高的蒸騰速率(Gidayetal.,2013;Arveetal.,2017)。Schwerbrock和Leuschner(2016)對稀有溫帶林地蕨類的研究發現,當空氣濕度從65%上升至95%時,9種蕨類生育能力增強,且地上部和地下部生產力均得到提升;趙超等(2014)研究表明,空氣濕度增加可以提高開蕨組培苗的光合作用。

      生姜起源于熱帶雨林地區,具有喜濕、不耐強光的特性。生姜越夏栽培易遭遇強光或高溫逆境脅迫,因此生產中多采用遮光栽培。研究表明,在土壤水分脅迫時,遮光可有效緩解生姜葉片的光抑制程度,提高光合效率(張永征等,2013);遮光生長的茶樹葉片凈光合強度較高,呼吸強度較低(趙甜甜等,2016);夏季遮光50%條件下生長的番茄植株葉溫較低,光化學脅迫減輕,較全光照果實商品率增加(Masabnietal.,2016)。Bertin等(2000)通過噴霧使空氣相對濕度從55%增加到70%,顯著提高了夏季溫室番茄的產量和品質。有鑒于此,本文研究彌霧栽培對姜田小氣候及生姜生長、葉片光合作用的影響,以期為合理調控生姜栽培環境、創新栽培模式提供理論依據。

      1材料與方法

      1.1試驗設計

      在2015年預備試驗基礎上,本試驗于2016年在山東農業大學園藝實驗站進行。供試生姜品種為萊蕪小姜,4月7日播種,行距60cm,株距18cm,播種后覆蓋地膜小拱棚;待6月4日姜株長至2~3個分枝時撤除地膜,于6月5日至7月30日的每個晴天在田間進行彌霧(Fogging,F)處理,以遮光(Shading,S)及裸地(Bareland,Bl)栽培為對照,小區面積39.6m2(11m×3.6m),4次重復,順序排列。

      田間遮光采用高1.5m棚架頂部覆蓋透光率50%的遮陽網,彌霧采用自制自動彌霧系統進行,由高壓泵、彌霧噴頭、高壓軟管及時間控制器組成,噴頭出水量0.8mL·min-1,每2行生姜設置1列噴頭,間距1.2m,行距1.5m,高度70cm,于每個晴天9:30~16:30,每隔30min啟動1次,每次10s。為防止彌霧擴散,在不同小區間張掛高1m的塑料薄膜進行隔離。至7月30日植株培土時,撤除遮陽網及彌霧裝置。其他管理均按常規方法進行。

      1.2項目測定

      試驗過程中,測定不同處理姜田小氣候,其中5cm地溫、植株冠層氣溫、空氣相對濕度(RH)均于測定日2:00、8:00、14:00和20:00測定,并計算日平均值,若遇彌霧時間段,則在彌霧結束10min后進行測定;土壤濕度及光量子通量密度(PFD)于午間13:00測定;環境參數日變化選晴天進行測定。每小區選取中間行生姜5株分別測定株高、莖粗、分枝數、根、莖、葉及根莖鮮質量,于10月20日收獲時每小區測定10m2實有株數稱重計產,并折算667m2產量。

      同時測定植株上數第3片完全展開功能葉的色素含量、水氣交換參數。葉片色素含量采用95%乙醇浸提,UV-2450紫外分光光度計比色法測定。葉片凈光合速率(Pn)、氣孔導度(Gs)、蒸騰速率(E)等水氣交換參數采用英國PP-Systems公司生產的Ciras-3便攜式光合測定系統測定。

      1.3數據處理

      采用Excel2010軟件進行數據處理,DPS軟件進行統計分析,Duncan’s新復極差法進行差異顯著性檢驗。

      2結果與分析

      2.1彌霧栽培對姜田小氣候的影響

      姜田彌霧栽培條件下,生姜冠層氣溫較裸地栽培顯著降低,如6月25日彌霧栽培處理(F)日平均氣溫分別較遮光處理(S)及裸地栽培處理(Bl)低1.5℃和4.6℃,說明彌霧栽培通過提高空氣濕度,可顯著降低植株冠層溫度。F處理姜田5cm地溫也大多低于S及Bl處理,而姜田土壤水分含量則以S處理較高,F處理次之,Bl處理較低。F、S處理均可在一定程度上增加空氣濕度,如7月28日F、S處理的空氣濕度分別較Bl處理增加了5.95個百分點和3.52個百分點,而F處理較S處理增加了2.43個百分點。F處理和Bl處理的光量子通量密度顯著高于S處理。

      2.2彌霧栽培對晴天姜田環境因子日變化的影響

      各處理氣溫及PFD均在13:00達到最大,5cm地溫則在15:00達到最大,且氣溫和5cm地溫均為F處理較低,Bl處理較高。F處理的最高氣溫為31.37℃,而S處理和Bl處理分別達32.04℃和34.90℃。空氣相對濕度上午逐漸降低,在13:00出現最小值,此時F、S、Bl處理的空氣相對濕度分別為52%、48%和46%,13:00后均有一定程度回升。

      2.3彌霧栽培對生姜生長及產量的影響

      不同處理生姜植株生長量存在差異,整個生育期內,遮光栽培(S)的生姜株高明顯高于彌霧栽培(F)及裸地栽培(Bl),而莖粗則以F處理較大,如7月12日S處理株高較F處理及Bl處理分別增加了4.09%及9.77%,F處理莖粗較S處理和Bl處理分別提高了11.70%和15.38%;單株分枝數以Bl處理較低,收獲時F、S、Bl處理單株分枝數分別為14.6、14.3、12.6個。整個生育期內,不同處理生姜根、莖及葉片鮮質量變化趨勢相似,均隨生長期的延長明顯增加,且處理間差異逐漸加大,S處理較高,F處理次之,Bl處理較低,收獲時S處理葉片鮮質量較F處理及Bl處理分別顯著提高了11.67%和26.11%。

      彌霧處理下生姜地上部生長量雖不及遮光處理,但生長后期的根莖鮮質量略高于遮光處理,收獲時F、S、Bl處理平均單株根莖鮮質量分別為447.3、439.7、342.5g,F、S處理分別比Bl處理顯著提高了30.59%和28.37%。收獲時F、S及Bl小區產量分別為40.31、39.59、30.70kg,每667m2產量分別為2688.68、2640.65、2047.69kg,F、S處理分別比Bl處理顯著增產31.30%和28.96%。

      2.4彌霧栽培對生姜葉片光合色素含量的影響

      不同處理葉片色素含量均呈現先升高后降低的趨勢,F處理生姜葉片葉綠素含量整體上高于Bl處理,但低于S處理。F處理的葉綠素a/b值明顯高于S處理,表明增加空氣濕度可在一定程度上提高葉綠素a/b值。葉片類胡蘿卜素含量變化趨勢與葉綠素含量變化趨勢相似,但以S處理葉片類胡蘿卜素含量較低,如7月12日F及Bl處理類胡蘿卜素含量均為0.37mg·g-1(FM),較S處理顯著增加了12.12%。

      2.5彌霧栽培對生姜葉片水氣交換參數的影響

      不同處理生姜葉片凈光合速率(Pn)日變化均呈雙峰曲線,全天均以F處理較高。尤其13:00時差異最大,F、S、Bl處理葉片凈光合速率分別為10.63、8.39、5.57μmol·m-2·s-1,F處理分別較Bl、S處理顯著增加了90.84%和26.69%。可見,在10:00~16:00高溫干燥時段,通過增加空氣濕度有利于生姜葉片凈光合速率的提高,減輕光合“午休”。氣孔導度(Gs)呈先升高后降低的趨勢,全天均以F處理最高,顯著高于S處理及Bl處理,說明彌霧栽培有利于氣孔開放,因此蒸騰速率也表現為F處理較高,S次之,Bl較低。不同處理生姜葉片瞬時水分利用效率(WUE)在一天中表現為雙峰曲線變化,峰值分別出現在11:00和15:00,峰值時均以F處理較高,S次之,Bl較低。

      3結論與討論

      前人研究表明,遮光降低了糯玉米籽粒灌漿率、籽粒粒徑和重量(Yangetal.,2016);高溫條件下,髙濕處理可以促進番茄幼苗生長(薛義霞和李亞靈,2010);隨著空氣濕度的下降,藍果忍冬株高及相對生長量呈下降趨勢(秦棟等,2011)。本試驗結果表明,在自然光照下,通過彌霧增加空氣濕度,有效降低了環境溫度,為生姜生長提供了適宜的環境,彌霧處理下生姜地上部生長量雖不及傳統遮光處理,但根莖產量略高于遮光處理,根莖生長量較大,生姜產量可達2688.68kg·(667m2)-1,較裸地栽培增產31.30%。

      已有報道顯示,遮光處理下植物葉片葉綠素含量高于自然光照(劉國順等,2007),但葉綠素a/b值較低(牟會榮等,2008),可導致光能捕捉和轉換耦合的不平衡。本試驗結果顯示,增加空氣濕度可在一定程度上提高葉綠素a/b值,增加類胡蘿卜素含量,有利于增強葉片的光能利用效率。在高溫強光的自然環境下,光合作用是植物最敏感的生理過程(Wahidetal.,2007)。

      研究表明,高溫脅迫可造成葉片超微結構損傷(黃磊等,2016),抑制PSⅡ的功能(Sunetal.,2007),影響植物的凈光合速率;同時高溫脅迫常伴隨著大氣相對濕度降低,導致氣孔關閉,蒸騰速率較低,以提高植株水分利用率(劉東煥和趙世偉,2002),但在較高的空氣濕度下,植物葉片氣孔保持著較高的開放程度(Fanourakisetal.,2016)。

      本試驗結果表明,彌霧可降低植株冠層及葉片溫度,增加空氣濕度,提高葉片氣孔導度,促進水氣交換,增強葉片的光合速率及蒸騰速率,提高水分利用效率。尤其在夏季午間前后高溫低濕時段(10:00~16:00)表現尤為突出。樓靚珺等(2013)在大豆上也有類似的研究結果。

      參考文獻

      黃磊,孫耀清,郝立華,黨承華,朱玉王,賀新,程東娟,張運鑫,鄭云普.2016.高溫對北高叢越橘葉片結構和生理代謝的影響.園藝學報,43(6):1044-1056.

      劉東煥,趙世偉.2002.植物光合作用對高溫的響應.植物研究,22(2):205-212.

      劉國順,趙獻章,韋鳳杰,王芳,汪文杰.2007.旺長期遮光及光照轉換對不同煙草品種光合效率的影響.中國農業科學,40(10):2368-2375.

      樓靚珺,宋新山,趙曉祥.2013.土壤水和空氣濕度組合對大豆幼苗光合特性的影響及其復水響應.中國農學通報,29(33):118-123.

      牟會榮,姜東,戴廷波,荊奇,曹衛星.2008.遮蔭對小麥旗葉光合及葉綠素熒光特性的影響.中國農業科學,41(2):599-606.

      秦棟,段國晟,霍俊偉,睢薇.2011.空氣濕度對藍果忍冬相對生長和外部形態的影響.北方園藝,(16):45-48.許大全.2002.光合作用效率.植物生理學報,(5):3-9.

      薛義霞,李亞靈.2010.空氣濕度對高溫下番茄營養生長的影響.西北農業學報,19(4):149-154.

      相關刊物推薦:西北農業學報以農業生物學為中心的各相關學科具有創造性、內容新、學術水平高、應用性強的研究成果、學術論文、重要文獻綜述等,開展國內外學術交流。

      

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