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    根施硒肥對黃瓜產量和硒富集的影響

    時間:2019年06月19日 所屬分類:農業論文 點擊次數:

    摘要:研究了5種不同富硒肥料對津優1號黃瓜種苗生長發育、結果質量及果實富硒量的影響。結果表明,硒礦物有機肥能顯著提高果實質量和果實硒含量,并使果實中的硒含量達到了0.0863mgkg-1。天然礦物質富硒肥、竹蓀富硒肥、亞硒酸鈉3種硒肥對黃瓜苗生長發育有顯

      摘要:研究了5種不同富硒肥料對津優1號黃瓜種苗生長發育、結果質量及果實富硒量的影響。結果表明,硒礦物有機肥能顯著提高果實質量和果實硒含量,并使果實中的硒含量達到了0.0863mg·kg-1。天然礦物質富硒肥、竹蓀富硒肥、亞硒酸鈉3種硒肥對黃瓜苗生長發育有顯著的抑制作用。其中,施用特效螯合硒肥的果實中硒含量達到了0.1685mg·kg-1,但是綜合生長情況不是最優。本試驗為將來探索施用富硒肥料種類及用量、有效的提高果蔬類植物產量及使植物合理富硒做了鋪墊。

      關鍵詞:黃瓜;硒富集;富硒肥

    北方園藝

      黃瓜(CucumissativusLinn),也稱青瓜、胡瓜,是葫蘆科的一年生攀緣植物[1]。硒元素是人體必須的微量營養元素,被國內外科學家們譽為“抗癌之王”、“生命之火”、“心臟守護神”[2]。中國大部分土壤均缺硒,這造成了農產品缺硒,從而引起人體缺硒,使各種疾病增多[3]。為了解決這個問題,人們開發出富硒蔬菜品種,解決了膳食補硒的問題[4]。通過食用富硒農產品以達到日常補硒的目的,以食補代替藥補,此法不但安全簡便,而且有效果顯著、價格低廉的市場優勢[5]。

      因此,將黃瓜與硒結合生產出富硒黃瓜是十分必要的[6]。目前,國內富硒蔬菜的種植大多采用水培法,仍是將有毒性的亞硒酸鈉溶液以營養液形式用于植物本身,該方法雖提高了蔬菜中的硒含量,但是亞硒酸鈉溶液的毒性對人體的影響尚有待考察[7]。本試驗將多種富硒肥以傳統施肥方式用于盆栽基質培養中,利用植物自身營養吸收功能,使試驗中的普通黃瓜成為富硒黃瓜,使外源硒成為有機硒。

      本研究還涵蓋了富硒肥對植物單果質量以及產量的影響因素試驗,以期達到富硒肥料既可以使植物成為富硒植物,也可以對植物生長和發育產生促進作用的目的[8]。未來,人們可以通過日常食用富硒黃瓜來提高人體的硒攝入量,達到增強體質、預防疾病的效果[9]。

      1材料和方法

      1.1試驗材料

      試驗采用的富硒肥料為硒礦物有機肥、特效螯合硒肥、天然礦物質富硒肥、竹蓀富硒肥、亞硒酸鈉5種,黃瓜種苗為津優1號。試驗地點為天津農學院園藝學院日光溫室。

      1.2試驗方法

      試驗采用基質培養法,小區面積1.5m×4m,為避免邊緣效應,試驗選擇大棚土地中間部分,并在各處理之間設置保護行,以減小誤差。試驗用基質為珍珠巖∶蛭石=1∶2,富硒肥料按照國家富硒土壤標準0.4mg·kg-1施用到基質中,每個處理栽種2棵黃瓜苗,重復3次。試驗中營養液為適合黃瓜生長的營養液配方,不含硒元素,避免其對試驗產生干擾。

      1.3測定內容及方法

      待黃瓜果實達到食用標準時,大約為播種后50~60d,每組處理在同樣溫度、濕度條件下選取每棵植株中最大的進行測量,并且對黃瓜植株的生物學特性進行測量,包括株高、葉長、葉寬、莖粗、果實質量及果實硒含量,共6個指標。采摘下的黃瓜貼好標簽,同日送往天津市農產品質量監督檢驗測試中心進行硒元素含量的檢測及分析。待得出檢測結果后,對試驗數據進行整理并進行方差分析,繪制出相關圖表,以供篩選出最適宜黃瓜植株生長發育且可以使黃瓜富硒的富硒肥料。

      2結果與分析

      通過對富硒黃瓜的各類植物學性狀進行比較,其結果的差異直觀的體現了各種富硒肥料對黃瓜的不同影響。本試驗以黃瓜植株的株高、葉長、葉寬等作為參考指標進行比較,分析各類富硒肥料對黃瓜長勢的綜合影響。

      2.1富硒肥料對黃瓜株高、莖粗的影響

      施用硒礦物有機肥的黃瓜植株長勢最好,平均株高達到了60.42cm,與對照和特效螯合硒肥處理間差異不顯著,與其他處理之間差異顯著。施用竹蓀富硒肥和亞硒酸鈉的黃瓜植株在定植后基本未生長,且出現倒伏現象。施用特效螯合硒肥和天然礦物質富硒肥的黃瓜植株株高低于對照。

      不同的富硒肥料對黃瓜莖粗的影響與株高類似。施用硒礦物有機肥的黃瓜植株平均莖粗最粗,達到了0.83cm,與對照和特效螯合硒肥處理間差異不顯著,與其他處理之間差異顯著。施用竹蓀富硒肥和亞硒酸鈉的黃瓜莖粗只有0.29cm和0.21cm,種苗基本未發育。天然礦物質富硒肥和特效螯合硒肥2組處理的黃瓜莖粗均低于對照。

      2.2富硒肥料對黃瓜葉片的影響

      不同富硒肥料對黃瓜葉長存在一定的影響,對照組的黃瓜葉長最長,達到了16.62cm。施用竹蓀富硒肥和亞硒酸鈉的黃瓜植株由于生長極為緩慢,發育不良,葉片生長能力也弱于其他4組處理,葉長只有4.17cm和3.05cm,種苗基本未發育。施用硒礦物有機肥的黃瓜葉長高于施用特效螯合硒肥和天然礦物質富硒肥的處理,但是之間差異不顯著。

      不同的富硒肥料對黃瓜葉寬也存在一定的影響,對照組的黃瓜葉寬最寬,達到了13.45cm。施用竹蓀富硒肥和亞硒酸鈉的黃瓜葉寬分別只有2.78cm和1.72cm,種苗基本未發育。施用硒礦物有機肥、特效螯合硒肥和天然礦物質富硒肥的黃瓜葉寬分別為11.75,11.63和9.00cm,均低于對照組,其中,天然礦物質富硒肥處理與對照組差異顯著,特效螯合硒肥處理和硒礦物有機肥處理與對照差異不顯著。

      2.3不同富硒肥料對黃瓜果實質量的影響

      不同富硒肥料對黃瓜果實質量存在一定影響,施用硒礦物有機肥的黃瓜果實質量最大,達到了152.33g,與對照組、特效螯合硒肥處理、天然礦物質富硒肥處理間差異顯著。施用竹蓀富硒肥和亞硒酸鈉的黃瓜植株因發育不良并未結果。

      2.4不同富硒肥料對黃瓜硒含量的影響

      不同富硒肥料對黃瓜果實硒含量存在一定的影響,施用特效螯合硒肥的黃瓜果實中硒含量最高,達到了0.1685mg·kg-1;對照組與施用天然礦物質富硒肥的果實中硒含量較低,分別只有0.00437和0.00839mg·kg-1;施用硒礦物有機肥的黃瓜果實中硒含量為0.0863mg·kg-1。從富硒效果看,特效螯合硒肥>硒礦物有機肥>天然礦物質富硒肥>對照。方差分析表明,天然礦物質富硒肥處理與對照之間差異不顯著,其他2種富硒肥料處理與對照間差異顯著。

      3結論與討論

      (1)施用硒礦物有機肥能對株高、莖粗起到促進作用,而施用特效螯合硒肥和天然礦物質富硒肥會對其產生抑制作用,其中天然礦物質富硒肥對莖粗的抑制作用明顯。在對照組中生長在同一盆中的黃瓜植株,株高、莖粗的差值分別過大,主要原因可能是植株間的競爭使其中一株植株吸收了大部分的養分,抑制了同盆另一株植株的生長。

      (2)施用富硒肥料會對黃瓜葉片生長產生抑制作用,與對照組對比,施用天然礦物質富硒肥對黃瓜植株葉片抑制作用明顯,而施用其他兩種肥料則對黃瓜植株葉片的抑制作用不明顯,主要原因可能是富硒肥料對黃瓜植株葉片的生長不產生明顯影響。

      (3)施用硒礦物有機肥會對黃瓜的果實質量產生明顯的促進作用,施用特效螯合硒肥與天然礦物質富硒肥會對黃瓜的果實質量產生抑制作用,但是抑制作用不顯著,主要原因可能是富硒肥料施用時對硒含量的標準單一化,硒元素在黃瓜的生長中產生了不明顯的抑制作用。

      (4)施用特效螯合硒肥時,黃瓜果實平均富硒量最高,達到了0.1685mg·kg-1,也對植株的品質、產量產生影響[10-14],但綜合生長情況不是最優。施用天然礦物質富硒肥的黃瓜果實中的硒含量偏低,原因可能是由于試驗中肥料添加的標準過于單一化,不符合該肥料實際生產中硒肥的施用量。同時,硒含量過高也會對植物的生長發育及富硒產生抑制作用,所以在試驗中竹蓀富硒肥和亞硒酸鈉抑制了黃瓜苗的生長及黃瓜果實對硒的吸收,故該肥料不適合用于實際的生產指導。通過與對照組對比來看,硒礦物有機肥能促進黃瓜植株的生長發育并且可以使黃瓜果實提高富硒量,但由于其對黃瓜植株生長發育的促進作用不明顯,故該富硒肥料在日后實際生產中的施用量也仍有待探索。

      由本試驗結果可知,天然礦物質富硒肥和特效螯合硒肥均沒有達到提高黃瓜產量目的。竹蓀富硒肥及亞硒酸鈉抑制了植物的生長發育,未能使黃瓜健康良好生長,故在未來,筆者仍將繼續探索這兩種富硒肥料的使用方法及施用量,以期在生產操作中可以達到提高植物產量以及使植物富硒的目的。硒礦物有機肥雖然未能明顯促進植物的生長發育,但確實有提高植株產量及使植物富硒的效能,故可適用于實際的生產指導。綜上所述,試驗中的5種富硒肥料如何施用及施用多少才能有效的提高果蔬類植物產量及使植物合理富硒仍是未來需進一步探索的課題。

      參考文獻:

      [1]周海霞,郭競,吳小波.大棚黃瓜無土栽培技術[J].北方園藝,2018(24):205-208.

      [2]張玲,張彥欣.硒的生理功能及其在果品生產中的應用[J].西北園藝(果樹),2018(2):9-11.

      [3]丁軍.富硒蔬菜中硒及農藥殘留含量的測定[J].科技創新與應用,2012(30):241.

      [4]李娜,王旭,萬凱,等.硒對植物生長作用的研究進展[J].廣東農業科學,2010(9):38-40.

      [5]尚慶茂,張志剛,陳淑芳.微量元素硒及其在蔬菜上的應用[J].中國蔬菜,2004(1):67-69.

      [6]徐暄,顧艷,孫其文.富硒氨基酸生物肥在水果型黃瓜上施用效果研究初報[J].安徽農學通報,2012,18(23):96-97.

      農林園藝刊物推薦:北方園藝是由黑龍江省農科院主管、黑龍江省園藝學會和黑龍江省農科院主辦的以科學研究和技術普及相結合的園藝類綜合性科技期刊

      

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