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    冰雹天氣的地面氣象觀測技術研究

    時間:2019年06月11日 所屬分類:農業論文 點擊次數:

    【摘要】冰雹天氣屬于惡劣天氣類型,對地面影響較大,冰雹是呈不規則形狀,具有較強的硬度,掉落砸到地面生物或建筑、設備上,會導致生物受傷、建筑和設備出現破損,對人們安全造成較大的威脅。基于這種情況,針對冰雹天氣的地面氣象觀測技術可以根據大氣中

      【摘要】冰雹天氣屬于惡劣天氣類型,對地面影響較大,冰雹是呈不規則形狀,具有較強的硬度,掉落砸到地面生物或建筑、設備上,會導致生物受傷、建筑和設備出現破損,對人們安全造成較大的威脅。基于這種情況,針對冰雹天氣的地面氣象觀測技術可以根據大氣中云形狀、顏色還有閃電等因素的變化,確認是否有冰雹天氣出現,從而提前進行預告,采取防護措施。因而本文主要對冰雹天氣的地面氣象觀測技術進行研究。

      【關鍵詞】大氣探測;冰雹;地面氣象觀測;研究

    氣象研究與應用

      冰雹天氣出現對地面生活與生產活動都有較為惡劣的影響,而且冰雹天氣還會引發其他多種不良氣候,冰雹天氣已經歸類為自然氣候災害當中了。尤其是在內蒙古地區,冰雹天氣會嚴重影響農業、畜牧業以及人們生活的正常進行。因而當冰雹天氣出現時需要對地面氣象進行觀測,以做好防護工作,降低冰雹天氣帶來的不良影響。

      1冰雹天氣對地面的影響

      首先,冰雹是不規則球型的晶狀物體,具有一定的硬度。冰雹從大氣層掉落,由于自身重力和硬度的關系會對地面物體造成打擊,具有一定的破壞力。其次,冰雹天氣當中還同時包含雷電、降雨、大風等元素,這些惡劣天氣綜合作用下,產生的傷害力非常強,內蒙古地區氣候本身具有一定的特殊性,冰雹天氣也并不少見,冰雹天氣出現后,農業、牲畜、房屋都會遭受嚴重的破壞,不僅影響人們經濟發展,也容易造成人員受傷。最后,冰雹天氣會對地區的基礎建設造成破壞,人們正常的生活與生產都會受到影響。

      2冰雹天氣地面氣象觀測技術研究的重要性

      近些年,我國各地區經濟持續發展,各類工業企業數量增多,各種生產活動對大氣層的影響較深。氣候發生了巨大的變化,各種惡劣天氣的出現愈加頻繁,冰雹天氣就是其中之一。冰雹天氣地面氣象觀測技術的應用,對大氣層的變化信息進行掌握,可以對冰雹天氣出現提前預知,然后提前發出氣象預報,讓該地區人們提前做好防護措施,避免冰雹天氣出現造成破壞,降低冰雹對地面的破壞程度。而對冰雹天氣地面氣象觀測技術進行研究能夠提高觀測的準確性,并提高觀測的速率,為預防提供更多的時間。由此,冰雹天氣地面觀測技術研究重要性可顯而知。

      3冰雹天氣地面預測技術

      冰雹天氣的預測難度比較大,氣象觀測人員需要根據大氣層和氣候的變化進行分析,從而對冰雹天氣進行預測。氣象局會實時的對大氣層變化信息進行收集,氣象觀測人員需要對大氣層云的變化進行分析,冰雹是從云中掉落的,冰雹天氣要出現時,云的變化比較明顯。當大氣層出現烏云,并且烏云的顏色為土藍色、灰藍色或蘭白色時,就有可能出現冰雹天氣。

      如果是在黑夜環境當中監測,無法準確辨別烏云的顏色,這時需要仔細監測閃電出現時烏云的顏色,通常冰雹天氣下云遇到閃電會呈現紅色狀態。冰雹天氣在雷電暴雨天氣當中比較常見,冰雹天氣云位移的速度比較快,而且云還會出現翻滾的現象,并伴有激烈的閃電。在冰雹天氣預測時,除了云的變化以外,地面也會發生變化。地面會出現風向的變化,風向由東、南方向轉為位西、北方向,冰雹天氣多發生在早、午溫差較大的時節。

      4冰雹天氣下地面氣象觀測技術

      冰雹天氣出現時需要利用地面氣象觀測技術,掌握冰雹天氣的具體情況,及時進行氣候播報。

      首先,在進行氣象觀測時,需要保證所有的觀測儀器運行狀態正常,保證觀測技術應用的有效性。這就需要觀測技術人員在使用儀器期間定時或不定時的對觀測儀器進行檢查和維護,保證儀器在冰雹天氣出現時能夠正常運行。

      其次,當冰雹天氣出現時,要對時間點進行記錄,然后撿取幾個比較大的冰雹,放入量杯當中,待融化后記錄水量。在撿取的冰雹顆粒當中,選擇直徑最大的進行測量,記錄冰雹直徑。經過這一系列操作后,要將觀測的基本信息及時播報出去,讓當地人們做好防護措施,避免受傷。冰雹天氣對地面的破壞力極強,必須保證天氣播報的及時性。

      最后,冰雹天氣出現的時間點是不能確定的,如果氣象預測期間發現有冰雹天氣出現的征兆,就要提前做好天氣觀測安排,輪流在白天和夜間進行地面氣象觀測。保證當冰雹出現時能夠及時進行觀測和記錄。冰雹天氣出現后十分鐘內觀測的數據是最有價值的。另外,由于冰雹形狀是不規則的,在進行冰雹直徑測量時可以進行估測,并將記錄的數據全部整理入冊,為未來冰雹天氣地面觀測提供數據參考。

      5冰雹天氣地面氣象觀測技術應用注意事項

      當最大冰雹的最大直徑>10mm時,應同時測量冰雹的最大平均質量,以克為單位,取整數。測量最大平均重量的方法有“稱重法”和“量杯量取法”。“稱重法”是選揀幾個最大和較大的冰雹,用天秤稱出重量,然后除以冰雹數目即得冰雹的最大平均質量。“量杯量取法”則是選揀幾個最大和較大的冰雹放入20cm口徑雨量筒的專用量杯中,待冰雹融化后,量出水的高度并算出水的質量,除以冰雹數目就是冰雹最大平均質量。

      其中用31.4乘以量得的水高度,算出水的體積和質量。當降冰雹時測站無雨,且冰雹非隨降隨化,則要注意做好自動觀測降水量的工作。當冰雹天氣出現時,對地面的破壞較大,地面氣象觀測人員一定要重視冰雹天氣的觀測,尤其是冰雹天氣預測工作。觀測人員要利用氣象臺專業的觀測儀器,仔細分析雷達、衛星傳回的氣象變化信息,但前提是地面氣象觀測人員需要掌握冰雹天氣云層和閃電的變化特征,才能根據其觀測信息預測出冰雹天氣。發現有冰雹預兆,及時發出預告,提前做好防護措施。

      6結語

      冰雹天氣為地面帶來的惡劣影響較大,通過地面氣象觀測技術能夠提前對冰雹天氣進行預測,人們提前做好相應的保護措施,可以大幅度降低冰雹天氣對農作物、房屋、生物的破壞,尤其在內蒙古地區牲畜和農業是主要的經濟體,遭受破壞產生的經濟損失較大。因而有效利用地面氣象觀測技術進行冰雹天氣的預測和觀測,對地區經濟發展還有人們的安全都有重要幫助,在未來值得對冰雹天氣觀測技術進一步的研究與優化。

      參考文獻

      [1]陳慧玲,趙廷斌,周志榮.冰雹與氣象要素的關聯及觀測方法[J].北京農業,2016(5):66-69.

      [2]韋宏江,韋芹,李祖敏等.冰雹與地面氣象要素的關系分析及觀測記錄[J].氣象研究與應用,2013,34(s2):160-161.

      [3]劉曉璐,張元,劉建西.川西南山地冰雹災害的時空特征[J].干旱氣象,2016,34(1):75-81.

      相關刊物推薦:《氣象研究與應用》(季刊)曾用刊名:臺站生活;廣西水文通訊;廣西氣象,1956年創刊,是綜合性技術刊物,主要刊登氣象科學有關分支學科的新理論、新技術及其應用的研究論文,氣象業務現代化建設的新進展及科研成果,各項氣象業務的技術方法和經驗,開展防災減災氣象服務的技術方法和經濟效益等。

      

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