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    農業論文

    谷子綠色高產高效創建集成技術初探

    時間:2019年06月10日 所屬分類:農業論文 點擊次數:

    【摘要】山西省作為我國谷子種植的重要產地,谷子產業的發展有著得天獨厚的優勢,谷子年均種植面積保持在300-350萬畝。而長治作為谷子這種優勢雜糧作物的主產區,在市場需求量不斷增大的背景下,種植面積逐年擴大。伴隨著農業部提出的雜糧綠色高產高效創建項

      【摘要】山西省作為我國谷子種植的重要產地,谷子產業的發展有著得天獨厚的優勢,谷子年均種植面積保持在300-350萬畝。而長治作為谷子這種優勢雜糧作物的主產區,在市場需求量不斷增大的背景下,種植面積逐年擴大。伴隨著農業部提出的雜糧綠色高產高效創建項目的實施,長治市的谷子種植產業更是集成了一套較為完善的谷子生產技術,在推進谷子規模化種植以及標準化生產等方面都有著顯著的效果,具有十分重要的現實意義。

      【關鍵詞】綠色高產高效創建項目;集成技術;規范種植;標準生產

    現代農業科學

      在2017年我國農業部提出的綠色高產高效創建項目影響之下,長治市作為山西省谷子產業的主要產區,緊跟國家號召,將綠色發展的理念貫穿于谷子產業始終,努力提高綠色谷子產量供給,并集成組裝出高產高效、生態環保、資源節約的一套技術模式,將谷子產業的高產與高校相統一,進一步實現了谷子產業的轉型統一和綠色發展。因此,本文從谷子綠色高產高效創建集成技術的基本情況入手,對集成技術的保障條件和主要措施進行研究分析,以供參考。

      1綠色高產高效創建基本情況

      山西省長治市為太行山、太岳山所環繞,處于高原地形,平均海拔高度為1000米。屬于典型的暖溫帶半濕潤大陸性季風氣候,全年氣候適宜,雨熱同季,年均氣溫為9.7度,年均降水量549.2毫米,平均濕度61%,年日照時數為2664.5h,年均無霜期182天,是全省的谷子生產基地之一[1]。其農業機械化程度較高,交通便利,配套設施完善,谷子產業的發展趨勢十分良好,產量和品質都有很高的提升潛力。

      在綠色高效高產創建項目提出之后,更是結合地區實際,對綠色高產高效創建基本情況進行規劃,具體內容如下:對谷子的優良品種進行示范推廣,采用地膜覆蓋的方式,實施測土配方施肥工作,嚴格防控病蟲害;同時提高機械化生產程度,利用專家技術作為指導,做好技術培訓工作等。

      2綠色高產高效創建集成技術的保障條件

      針對長治市谷子產業的實際情況來看,健全的農業技術推廣體系以及雄厚的專業技術推廣隊伍是其開展綠色高產高效創建集成技術的基礎技術保障。適宜的氣候環境,地質環境以及便利的交通運輸情況更是為其提供了基礎環境保障。同時,該地區多年種植谷子總結的栽培經驗以及養護經驗更是為其提供了有效基礎經驗保障。由此可見,在眾多保障條件之下,長治市谷子綠色高產高效創建集成技術將會得到順利的推廣[2]。

      3綠色高產高效創建集成技術的主要措施

      3.1示范推廣優良品種依照綠色高產高效創建項目“專業指導、因地制宜”的基本原則,在谷子品種選擇上,選取晉谷21號、晉谷40號等適宜在本地種植的高產谷子品種,確保谷子良種覆蓋率達到100%[3]。

      3.2集成高產栽培技術集成高產栽培技術作為谷子綠色高產高效創建集成技術的核心措施,具體情況如下:

      1)選地整地措施,因谷子這種作物粒小、芽弱,并不具備較強的頂土能力,因此,在選地的過程中,要盡量選取地勢較高、土質較為疏松、土層深厚、松軟肥沃的沙壤土進行栽培種植,確保土壤具有良好的保水保肥能力、通透性較強、容易耕作。并且要結合深翻耙壓綜合整地措施,確保土壤整平耙細,能夠有效的蓄水保墑,為實現一次播種保全苗的目的提供良好的條件。同時,避免重茬現象,前茬作物最好為豆類或薯類,輪作時間控制在3至4年最佳[4]。

      2)培肥地力、測土配方施肥措施。在選地整地措施完成之后,要對土壤進行測土施肥操作,為了確保谷子生長的養分充足,在正常施有機肥的基礎上,可以適量補充氮磷鉀化肥,并同農家肥一起使用。

      3)適時適量播種覆膜措施。谷子播種時間一般選擇為四月下旬至五月上旬這一時間段,確保地表溫度處于8至10攝氏度時進行播種。并根據實際墑情最終確定播種時間。在播種過程中,要嚴格控制播種量和播種深度,具體依照實際情況進行確定。在播種之后選取合適的時間進行相應的覆膜操作。這一措施能夠促進群體協調,壯大個體發育,能有效避免后期倒伏現象的發生,為谷子高產提供了基礎保障。

      4)科學管理措施。在谷子綠色高產高效創建集成技術中,管理工作要做到科學、認真,并確保貫徹落實。針對谷子栽培的前期管理而言,要確保成功構建群體結構,因苗制宜,實施科學管理,確保谷子能夠達到理想的高產目標。并且關注天氣情況,避免出現凍害、低溫冷害情況的發生。針對中后期的管理而言,主要從除草劑的噴施、追肥保高產、稀谷秀大穗、多中耕、加強病蟲害防治等方面進行管理。

      3.3實行專業化的服務管理

      在谷子綠色高產高效創建集成技術的示范區內,根據相關的技術服務要求,確保做好示范區苗情、蟲情、肥情等方面的監測與預報工作[5]。同時,對隸屬于規模經濟模式的農機采取積極扶持的政策,構建植保專業化的服務組織,進一步促進機械統一作業的開展,提高專業化病蟲害的防治效果。

      3.4強化指導服務

      專業化的指導服務也是集成技術中的重點之一,加強對谷子高產高效創建工作的專業化指導服務,在較為關鍵的農時季節中,組織相應的專家對公職種植區域進行分區觀摩,并提供相應的專業技術培訓,從而推進穩定增產技術模式的大規模應用。同時,加強對新型主體的服務力度,做到點對點服務,建立專家對口的服務制度,實行谷子生產全過程技術指導,從而進一步促進新型經營主體的持續發展。

      4結語

      綜上所述,本文針對山西省長治市的谷子綠色高產高效創建集成技術進行研究,從谷子品種推廣、集成高產栽培技術、集成專業化服務以及強化指導服務等多個方面對其進行分析,并結合谷子產業的實際情況,提出相應的技術措施。以期實現長治市谷子產業的高產高效創建,從而提高谷子產業的組織化程度和集約化水平,進一步促進我國農業的可持續發展。

      參考文獻

      [1]豐寶麗.谷子綠色高產高效創建集成技術初探[J].現代農業,2018(1):72-73.

      [2]周康才,劉遠柱,劉恒斌等.水稻綠色高產增效創建技術集成探索與思考[J].農技服務,2016,33(8):40-41.

      [3]吳艷峰.谷子高產高效綠色環保種植技術[J].農民致富之友,2016(18):212.

      [4]施萬榮.晉西北機械化地膜覆蓋谷子種植技術探討[J].農業技術與裝備,2011(24):69-70.

      [5]韓愛民.提高谷子生產技術含量強化高產高效優質栽培[J].現代農村科技,1995(12):7-8.

      農業刊物推薦:現代農業科學是教育部主管、中國高等學校自然科學學報研究會主辦,國內外公開發行的國家級綜合性農業學術期刊。原《農村實用技術與信息》改名,11月首刊。

      

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