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    農業論文

    基于GIS支持下的農業氣象災害監測系統的開發與應用

    時間:2019年06月05日 所屬分類:農業論文 點擊次數:

    摘要:本文從系統結構和系統數據、建立模型、決策服務系統的開發三方面分析了基于GIS支持下的農業氣象災害監測系統的開發問題,從圖形顯示和氣候資源監測評價、氣象災害評估和遙感數據處理兩方面分析了農業氣象災害監測系統的應用,希望能為我國相關從業人員

      摘要:本文從系統結構和系統數據、建立模型、決策服務系統的開發三方面分析了基于GIS支持下的農業氣象災害監測系統的開發問題,從圖形顯示和氣候資源監測評價、氣象災害評估和遙感數據處理兩方面分析了農業氣象災害監測系統的應用,希望能為我國相關從業人員帶來一定的啟示,以提高農業氣象災害監測系統的開發與應用能力。

      關鍵詞:農業氣象災害;監測系統;系統開發

    南方農業學報

      近年來,我國經常發生一些農業氣象災害,為了對這些氣象災害進行檢測與預防,相關工作人員不斷研究農業氣象災害監測系統,并將其應用在現實生活之中。這種系統主要是在GIS支持下工作的,GIS就是地理信息系統,可以獲取地球表面的一些信息,并將其通過信息化的處理,有效的預測農業氣象災害。本文探討了基于GIS支持下的農業氣象災害監測系統開發與應用問題。

      1基于GIS支持下的農業氣象災害監測系統的開發

      1.1系統結構和系統數據

      技術人員在進行該系統開發時,需要開發出數據轉換、災害等級劃分、災害預測等各系統結構,因為要利用GIS技術,所以系統數據的開發是至關重要的。這需要從三個方面入手,一是要獲取地理信息背景數據,要在氣象檢測系統中搭建出GIS數據庫,通過探測地球空間位置的數據情況,反映出氣象特征,從而對地理空間的位置、方向等數據進行分析;二是要搭建出實時監測災害數據庫,這需要借助衛星遙感技術對氣象衛星進行定位,并投影出LDF文件[1]。另外,還要收集氣象站近30年來的數據,并進行平均值計算,建立出一定的農業氣象模型與指標,從而進行實時氣象災害的檢測;三是要收集國家的農業災情詳細資料,將其匯總到數據庫之中,獲取到災害統計數據。

      1.2建立模型

      在農業氣象災害檢測系統開發的過程中,建立模型是至關重要的一項工作。一是要建立干旱監測分析模型,這需要根系統據獲取到的土壤、氣象信息等情況,并通過遙感技術與氣象數據,利用數據模型進行大面積的監測,期間還要進行干旱范圍程度、需水量等相關內容的計算,從而尋找可靠的解決辦法;二是要建立出洪澇監測分析模型,要獲取單位區域內的降水信息,利用GIS技術監測洪水變化情況,并進行危險程度、洪澇范圍的計算;三是建立出低溫冷害監測分析模型,因為這種自然災害通常是遇到強冷空氣活動導致而成的,持續時間不長,所以一定要提高遙感監測的速度,但是目前我國的監測還不夠及時,未來要加強技術水平,提高檢測的及時性。

      1.3決策服務系統的開發

      開發決策服務系統,這項系統要能夠根據檢測到的災害情況進行快速及時的評估分析,并生成形象的災害分布圖,做出損失估算報告。同時,還要建立起一定的應急方案與對策,根據之前模塊所分析出的數據信息,制定出合理的抗災重點和詳細的建設方案,并對我國的抗災工作進行指導。例如,根據可以使用人工降雨,水利調度等操作,從而降低災害的影響程度。

      2基于GIS支持下的農業氣象災害監測系統的應用

      2.1圖形顯示和氣候資源監測評價

      隨著科技的發展,農業氣象災害監測中的幾項具體功能已經得到了大面積的應用,首先是圖形顯示功能,其可以生成一些等值線,并進行離散點的繪制,還可以通過GIS技術,在網格中插入數據,將其制成具有色斑的圖像,從而更加清晰直觀地勘測災害范圍。另外,系統還可以進行氣候資源的監測,可以將熱、光等資源輸入GIS數據庫之中,這樣系統就可以自動根據實時的氣候資源,向網格中插入高分辨率的數據,輕易查出某地的氣候資源情況,并繪制出相應的圖像。

      2.2氣象災害評估和遙感數據處理

      農業氣象災害監測系統在氣象災害評估中也得到了大面積的應用,這主要是因為在GIS科學的空間屬性信息支持下,系統中可以對區域內的氣象情況進行判定,區域內的河流、鐵路線的數量及分布都會詳細地展現出來,一旦某區域內出現了氣象災害,GIS就可以發揮出作用,讓系統顯現出受災面積、受災程度,這樣就可以進行氣象災害的評估[2]。另外,GIS還可以和遙感影像數據進行結合,從而有效地變換處理遙感影像數據,將有價值的信息提取保存,最終通過制圖的方式輸出結果。總之,氣象災害監測系統除了應用于氣象災害之中,還可以在氣象預警、氣象分析方面有著較為強大的應用功效。

      2.3應用案例

      我國東南沿海地區曾經發生過臺風氣象災害,相關人員就應用了防汛的GIS氣象監測系統,在臺風來臨之前對登陸地點以及登陸時間進行預測和評估,從而為當地的災害預防工作提供了幫助,相關人員利用GIS系統預測出的河水及臺風情況,并依靠互聯網手段將情況發布在地圖上,在當地發出緊急警報,當地人員馬上采取防范措施,疏散沿海居民,進行物資調度,開展搶險工作,從而降低了臺風災害對于該地區的影響。

      3結語

      基于GIS支持下的農業氣象災害監測系統具有非常強大的應用優勢,相關人員一定要積極投入系統的研發過程中,不斷將新技術與GIS充分結合起來,從而提高檢測系統的能力與時效性,為我國農業氣象災害的預防控制工作提供有效的技術支持。

      參考文獻

      [1]姚強,郭彩霞,等.農業自動氣象監測系統安卓客戶端設計與實現[J].南方農業,2018,12(28):114-118.

      [2]馮天計,張繼權,等.基于GIS的北方草原干旱識別可視化系統研究[J].災害學,2017,32(04):202-207.

      農業類期刊推薦:南方農業學報是國內外公開發行的綜合性農業學術期刊,主要刊登基礎理論和應用技術研究方面的學術論文,包括研究報告、技術經驗總結、研究簡報、文獻綜述與調查報告等,涉及農業自然科學交叉領域方面具有創新性、先進性、學術性、應用性的充分反映我國南方地區農業技術創新和農業科研成果,突出南方熱帶、亞熱帶農業特色。

      

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