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    農業論文

    基于機械化移栽的茶用菊育苗基質篩選

    時間:2019年04月25日 所屬分類:農業論文 點擊次數:

    摘要:茶用菊是近年來北京地區涌現出的一類優良景觀作物,在北京很多地區發展比較迅速,但其移栽環節人工投入過大,制約產業良性發展。為了更好落實輕簡高效技術集成,特開展基于機械化移栽的茶用菊育苗基質篩選試驗。結果表明,茶用菊使用純泥炭或泥炭∶蛭

      摘要:茶用菊是近年來北京地區涌現出的一類優良景觀作物,在北京很多地區發展比較迅速,但其移栽環節人工投入過大,制約產業良性發展。為了更好落實輕簡高效技術集成,特開展基于機械化移栽的茶用菊育苗基質篩選試驗。結果表明,茶用菊使用純泥炭或泥炭∶蛭石(體積比)=3∶1的扦插基質育苗,種苗的生根情況、地上部長勢及成品率均與傳統純蛭石扦插苗無明顯差異,同時在機械移栽測試中表現出良好的根坨保持力、移栽入穴率及緩苗成活率,具有較大的推廣潛力。

      關鍵詞:茶用菊,扦插,基質,機械化,移栽,泥炭

    現代園藝

      茶用菊簡稱茶菊,其花朵可做菊花茶,不僅具有藥用價值,而且還有極高的觀賞價值。憑借這優良的產業融合特性[1],茶菊已成為北京地區景觀農業建設中的一類重要的功能型花卉作物,因此,其種植面積逐年擴大,但隨北京地區勞動力成本提高,產業發展進入瓶頸期,所以,輕簡化、集約化、機械化是未來茶菊產業發展的方向。

      目前北京市采用的育苗模式多為裸根苗或采用純蛭石扦插的穴盤苗,無法使用機械帶坨移栽,難以實現機械化覆膜移栽集成配套。前人在菊花育苗方面有較深入研究[2-9],尚缺乏育苗基質與機械化移栽技術集成配套的研究。

      為此,北京市農業技術推廣站聯合延慶區農業技術推廣站在充分參考借鑒番茄、黃瓜等主流作物在育苗基質配比的研究[10-13],并結合色素萬壽菊移栽技術的研究成果[14],于2017年進行了基于機械化移栽的茶用菊育苗基質篩選,旨在為后續的茶用菊穴盤苗標準化生產及機械化移栽提供技術儲備。

      1材料和方法

      1.1材料及設備

      供試茶用菊品種為玉臺一號,由北京市農林科學院選育,從扦插到移栽日歷苗齡為38d。供試泥炭為丹麥進口品氏育苗專用基質,規格為300L包裝;供試蛭石為國產蛭石,15袋為1000L。供試穴盤為105穴黑色育苗穴盤,移栽機為東風井關自走式移栽機2ZY-ZA。

      1.2試驗方法

      試驗在北京市延慶區舊縣鎮綠富隆農業園區景觀綜合試驗方進行。2017年4月10日扦插,5月18日移栽。試驗設置4個育苗基質組合,分別為:處理1.純泥炭;處理2.泥炭∶蛭石(體積比)=3∶1;處理3.泥炭∶蛭石(體積比)=1∶1;處理4.泥炭∶蛭石(體積比)=1∶3;以傳統的育苗基質純蛭石為對照(CK)。3次重復,15個小區,每小區10m2育苗床。

      1.3測定項目及方法

      5月17日出圃時開展種苗生物學指標觀測,重點開展生根指標性狀(包括發根天數、發根條數、根系長、根鮮質量、根干質量),種苗地上部指標(包括株高和葉片數)。并統計成品率,成品標準為地上部株高10cm以上,葉片數大于8葉1心,植株挺拔無明顯彎曲畸形,葉色嫩綠,無病蟲害。

      5月18日開展種苗與移栽機匹配情況觀測,重點開展提苗散坨率、移栽入穴率及緩苗成活率3項指標觀測。1.4數據分析試驗數據采用Excel軟件整理并通過SPSS軟件進行方差分析,分析方法采用LSD多重比較法。

      2結果與分析

      2.1不同育苗基質對茶用菊生根的影響

      從各處理的生根情況來看,處理1,2的發根天數顯著長于CK,處理3長于CK,但是差異不顯著,處理4與CK間無顯著差異;發根條數、根系長度、根系鮮質量和根系干質量上,各處理之間沒有顯著差異。從生根情況來看,改變生根基質的配比對發根時間有較明顯的影響,蛭石含量越高發根越早,初步分析是隨著蛭石占比的變高,基質的空氣含量提升,有利于插穗的發根。出圃時的生根狀態各處理之間沒有明顯的差異,說明泥炭和蛭石的不同配比對生根質量的影響不大,所以,從根部性狀來看,各種配比均可作為茶用菊扦插基質應用。

      2.2不同育苗基質對茶用菊種苗地上部狀態及成品率的影響

      從株高看,處理3最高,且顯著高于CK,但與其他3個處理間無顯著差異。從葉片數來看,各處理間及與CK之間均無顯著差異。從成品率來看,處理3成品率最高,達到91%以上,CK成品率最低(89.67%),其他處理居中,但各處理及CK之間無顯著性差異。從整體來看,各處理的扦插苗出圃狀態相近,CK在株高方面略低于其他處理,分析原因與蛭石的保水保肥性較差存在一定關系。

      2.3移栽性能分析

      提苗根坨的完整度是種苗能否進行機械化移栽的第一步考驗,只有較完整的根坨才能在上機后適時出倉,并提供適宜的降落速度。提苗散坨率處理1最高,沒有散坨發生,處理2次之,二者間無顯著差異,處理3再次,顯著低于CK,處理4與CK間無顯著差異。機械化移栽種苗入穴也是非常關鍵的一步,關系到后期補苗的工作量和移栽的成活率。

      處理1的入穴率最高,達到88.67%,處理2次之,但二者間無顯著差異,處理3再次,顯著高于處理4和CK。種苗移栽后通過緩苗期的成活率是檢驗移栽模式成功與否的標志。從本試驗緩苗后的成活率來看,處理1最高,達到83.67%,處理2次之,且無顯著差異,處理3,4依次降低,但均顯著高于CK,CK的緩苗成活率接近0,說明蛭石苗完全不適宜機械化栽植。

      3結論與討論

      本研究表明,在茶用菊扦插育苗中,用泥炭全部替代或部分替代傳統的純蛭石作為扦插基質,對種苗的生根和出圃質量影響不大,可使用純泥炭和不同配比的泥碳蛭石混合基質替代純蛭石使用。從移栽過程看,使用純泥炭和泥炭∶蛭石(體積比)=3∶1處理可較好地保障根坨的完成性,實現機械移栽的同步協調性,具有較高的入穴成功率和緩苗成活率,而當蛭石在扦插基質中占比高過1/2后,就很難保障種苗在機械移栽過程中保持良好的根坨形態和下苗同步性,入穴率和緩苗成活率過低,不適合機械作業。因此,建議在今后的茶菊育苗產業化中,逐步用育苗專用泥炭全部替代或按75%以上比例替代蛭石,為實現種植產業整體升級打好基礎。

      參考文獻:

      [1]張樹林,戴思蘭.中國菊花全書[M].北京:中國林業出版社,2013.

      [2]王生敏.地被菊不同基質的扦插對比試驗[J].中國野生植物資源,2009(6):74-75.

      [3]黃善友,何賢彪,何道根,等.菊花扦插適宜基質的篩選及評價[J].浙江農業科學,2007(1):35-38.

      [4]陸兵,肖冠軍.不同基質對菊花扦插生根的影響[J].廣西園藝,2006(6):33-34.

      [5]楊倩,楊秋生.不同基質處理對盆栽菊花生長的影響[J].湖南農業科學,2012(5):33-34.

      [6]那艷斌,張天靜,張艷秋.不同栽培基質對“神馬”菊花組培苗移栽成活率和生長的影響[J].現代農業科技,2012(14):35-38.

      [7]周余華,戴金平.盆栽菊花扦插技術的模式化研究[J].江蘇農業科學,2003(4):74-75.

      [8]項玉英,何賢彪.不同基質對菊花扦插效果的影響[J].上海農業科技,2006(5):138.

      相關園藝論文投稿刊物:《現代園藝》(半月刊)創刊于1978年,由江西省經濟作物局、江西省雙金柑桔試驗站主辦。榮獲江西省優秀科技期刊

      

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