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    農業論文

    探究林業病蟲害無公害防治的重要意義和防治方法

    時間:2019年04月11日 所屬分類:農業論文 點擊次數:

    摘要:在我國林業種植的過程中,病蟲害的產生大大的降低了林業生產的質量,不利于我國林業的可持續發展。在進行林業病蟲害防治的過程中,化學防治技術被廣泛的運用,雖然能夠達到快速防治病蟲害的目的,但對生態環境造成了巨大的破壞。為了改善這種情況,在進

      摘要:在我國林業種植的過程中,病蟲害的產生大大的降低了林業生產的質量,不利于我國林業的可持續發展。在進行林業病蟲害防治的過程中,化學防治技術被廣泛的運用,雖然能夠達到快速防治病蟲害的目的,但對生態環境造成了巨大的破壞。為了改善這種情況,在進行林業病蟲害防治的過程中,應該更多的運用無公害防治技術。基于此,本文分析了造成林業病蟲害的原因,重點探討了林業病蟲害無公害防治的重要意義和防治方法。

      關鍵詞:林業;病蟲害;無公害防治;重要意義;防治方法

    農業與技術

      1緒論

      近年來,隨著我國生態文明建設進程不斷加快,我國林業得到了較快的發展。但由于缺乏科學合理的營林技術等因素,在進行林業種植時,病蟲害依然較為多發。為了在保護生態環境的基礎上,做好林業病蟲害的防治,必須更加重視將無公害技術運用到林業病蟲害防治中,提升林業生產的質量,實現林業生產生態效益和經濟效益的統一。

      2林業病蟲害產生原因分析

      當前,林業病蟲害依然較為多發,歸根結底,主要是由以下幾種因素所導致的。(1)缺乏合理高效的營林技術。當前,我國很多地區在進行林業經營管理時,重視追求經濟效益,忽視根據生態環境來選擇合理的營林技術,這導致林木的種植存在不合理的現象,從而容易產生病蟲害。(2)人工林與自然林比例不協調。自然林在發展的過程中,已經形成了較為穩定的生態系統,只要人工不進行大肆干預,那么其抗病蟲害能力是比較強的,隨著我國植樹造林工程規模的不斷擴大,我國人工林的規模增加,由于人工林是人工種植的,其中的沒有形成穩定的生態系統,這導致其抗病蟲害能力較低。(3)病蟲害防治技術不合理。在進行林業病蟲害防治的過程中,缺乏合理的病蟲害防治技術,大量的運用化學防治方法,對農藥的使用不合理,不僅不能防治病蟲害,還造成病蟲害更加嚴重。

      3林業病蟲害無公害防治的重要意義

      在進行林業病蟲害防治的過程中,不僅能夠避免傳統化學防治技術造成的環境污染,保護生態環境,還能夠降低病蟲害防治的成本,提升林業生產的質量和產量,具有重要的意義。

      (1)有利于降低污染,保護生態環境。我國很多地區在進行林業病蟲害防治時,經常運用化學防治技術,對林木使用農藥。這雖然能夠達到快速防治病蟲害的效果,但是會對周圍的環境造成巨大的污染,在病蟲害產生抗藥性以后,防治將具有更大的難度。通過運用無公害防治技術進行病蟲害防治,能夠有效的避免這個問題,降低化學防治造成的污染,保護周圍的生態環境。

      (2)有利于降低病蟲害防治成本,提升林業生產的質量和產量。通過將無公害防治技術運用到林業病蟲害防治中,能夠降低購買化學農藥所需要的費用,在一定程度上降低林業病蟲害的防治成本,還能夠得到良好的病蟲害防治效果,提高林業生產的質量和產量,實現林業生產經濟效益的提升。

      4林業病蟲害無公害防治方法分析

      當前,在運用無公害防治技術進行林業病蟲害的防治時,主要具有以下幾種方法,本文對其進行具體分析。

      4.1運用科學合理的林木撫育方法

      首先,需要對林木種植區域的自然和社會環境進行深入的分析和了解,因地制宜的進行選擇所要栽種的樹種,確保樹種的質量,提升樹木的成活率和抗病蟲害能力。其次,在進行種植之前,需要對種植的土地和樹種進行消毒處理,避免病蟲害的產生。最后,在種植完成以后,應該對林木進行合理的管理和撫育,定期進行雜草清除,修建多余的樹枝,避免病蟲害的產生概率。

      4.2無公害生物病蟲害防治技術分析

      生物防治技術是一種重要的無公害病蟲害防治技術,主要通過以下幾種防治方法進行林業病蟲害的防治。(1)以菌治蟲技術。運用自然界中微生物在新陳代謝中產生的抗生素,對林業中的病蟲害進行防治,例如白僵菌等。(2)以鳥治蟲、天敵防治技術。通過在林木蟲害發生的區域釋放一定數量的害蟲天敵或者捕食害蟲的鳥類,對蟲害進行捕食,可以有效的防治蟲害。例如,啄木鳥、杜鵑等等。(3)生化農藥防治技術。通過運用一些對環境污染較小的生化農藥對林木種的病蟲害進行防治,可以達到較好的效果,例如,苦參堿、阿維菌素等。

      4.3無公害物理病蟲害防治技術分析

      物理防治技術也是一種較為常用的無公害病蟲害防治技術,其在防治病蟲害時,主要運用以下幾種方式。(1)人工捕殺害蟲。在林業害蟲猖獗的時期,工作人員通過運用一些設備,對蟲害進行捕殺,可以對蟲害進行良好的控制。(2)物理阻隔技術。該技術是通過在病蟲害傳播的過程中,運用物理的方式,對其傳播路徑進行阻隔,從而避免病蟲害發生范圍的擴大,達到防治病蟲害的目的。(3)物理誘殺技術。在病蟲害多發時期,在林間運用黑光燈和高壓電網滅蟲器,對害蟲進行誘殺消滅。(4)調節溫濕度技術。例如,運用暴曬樹種等技術來消滅病蟲害。

      5結語

      綜上所述,為了實現在保護環境的基礎上達到高效防治林業病蟲害的目的,應該重視無公害技術在林業病蟲害防治中的運用,通過合理撫育林木,運用生物、物理等技術,達到病蟲害防治的目的,實現林業的可持續發展。

      參考文獻:

      [1]文靜,張寶義.林業病蟲害無公害防治的重要意義和防治方法[J].黑龍江科學,2016,7(10):155-156.

      [2]趙延福,徐翠麗.林業病蟲害無公害防治的重要意義及防治方法[J].農業與技術,2017(24):189.

      [3]卜學剛.林業病蟲害無公害防治的重要意義和防治方法[J].農民致富之友,2017(17):128.

      [4]張雪松.林業病蟲害無公害防治的重要意義和防治辦法[J].黑龍江科學,2017(21):132-133.

      農業方向期刊推薦:《農業與技術》雜志創刊于1980年,由中國科技期刊編輯學會、吉林省科學技術信息研究所主辦,農業與技術雜志社編輯出版的國家級農業綜合性刊物。主要刊登農業工程、農業經濟、農業產業化、農業科研成果與動態,先進實用技術及科教興農等方面論文,涉及學科較深、領域廣泛。

      

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