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    農業論文

    井岡山茶葉綠色防控技術應用及成效

    時間:2019年03月15日 所屬分類:農業論文 點擊次數:

    摘要:井岡山市圍繞支柱產業茶葉,通過生態調控、農業防治、理化誘控、安全科學用藥等綠色防控技術控制病蟲害的發生,改善了茶園的生態環境,提升了茶園的產量與質量,給當地茶農帶來更多的經濟效益,促進了井岡山市茶產業持續、穩定、健康發展,也為鄉村振

      摘要:井岡山市圍繞支柱產業茶葉,通過生態調控、農業防治、理化誘控、安全科學用藥等綠色防控技術控制病蟲害的發生,改善了茶園的生態環境,提升了茶園的產量與質量,給當地茶農帶來更多的經濟效益,促進了井岡山市茶產業持續、穩定、健康發展,也為鄉村振興、產業扶貧提供了有力的技術保障。

      關鍵詞:茶葉,綠色防控,技術推廣

    南方農業學報

      井岡山地處北緯26°的黃金茶葉產區,山高谷深,雨量充沛,光照適度,土壤疏松肥沃,有機質含量豐富。低海拔地區(海拔<1000m)的土壤質地以粘土、粘壤土為主,土壤溫度呈“熱性”,土壤濕度呈濕潤性;高海拔地區(海拔>1000m)的土壤質地以壤土、砂壤土為主,土壤溫度呈“溫性或冷性”,土壤濕度呈常濕潤性。土壤呈微酸性,pH值在4.14~5.33范圍。自然和生態環境條件優越,森林覆蓋率達到86%以上,至今仍保留眾多人跡罕至的大片原始森林,生物資源特別豐富,地理氣候條件及空氣、水、土壤十分適合生產高優高質茶葉。

      1井岡山市茶葉種植現狀

      1.1茶葉分布及品種

      井岡山市茶葉種植面積1666.7hm2。井岡山市的茶葉產區主要分布在下七、黃坳、長坪、茨坪、東上、茅坪、大隴、葛田、坳里、新城、古城、柏露12個鄉鎮。其中,茨坪、茅坪等鄉鎮地處中高海撥,屬于高山茶園,適合于種植耐寒茶樹品種;黃坳、下七等鄉鎮地處為低海撥,適合于種植高香的茶樹品種。井岡山市種植的茶樹品種主要有福鼎、福云系列,為20世紀80年代從福建引進的茶樹品種,是當地原有種植茶樹品種;龍井43、浙農117、浙農113、迎霜、安吉白茶為近年新引進品種,此外,還有本地單株選育種等。

      1.2茶葉主要病蟲害

      井岡山市茶葉病蟲發生面積466.7hm2,茶毛蟲、茶尺蠖、茶小綠葉蟬發生率較其他蟲害高,茶麗紋象甲多發生于老茶園,茶園年限越長越容易發生茶麗紋象甲,在新茶園發現率低。近年由于市政府大力推廣茶產業發展以及整治撂荒土地的行動,有部分水稻田“水改旱”用來種植茶葉。種植在“水改旱”土地上的茶樹出現紋枯病的概率較高;種植在山坡、旱地上的茶葉發生紋枯病的概率明顯小于前者。

      1.3茶葉病蟲害防治

      井岡山市茶葉防治面積933hm2次。由于生態環境良好,具有較完整的生物鏈,茶園主及茶葉種植戶對農藥的使用量較低,依賴性也低。主要依靠天敵、燈誘、性誘、冬季除草整園綠色防控技術進行防治。

      2綠色防控基本原則

      從農業生態系統出發,綜合運用各種防治措施,創造不利于病蟲草害茲生和有利于各類天敵繁衍的環境條件,保持農業生態系統的平衡和生物多樣化,減少各類病蟲草害所造成的損失。

      3綠色防控技術

      3.1生態調控

      茶園周圍種植防護林、綠化帶。防護林、綠化帶盡量選擇不易滋生害蟲的植物,例如桂花樹、香樟樹等高大喬木。保護茶園的生物多樣性,利于茶園天敵的生存和繁殖,比如蚜蟲、白粉虱、薊馬天敵:瓢蟲、食蚜蠅、蚜繭蜂、草蛉。在茶行套種紫云英等綠肥作物,增加茶園的土地肥力,減少化肥使用量。種養結合:茶園養雞,輔助防治茶尺蠖、茶毛蟲等。

      3.2農業防治

      3.2.1選擇抗病蟲害優良品種。提高抗病性。

      3.2.2及時采摘。可以減少成蟲產卵的場所和有卵嫩梢,抑制蟲害發生,尤其是茶小綠葉蟬、茶蚜蟲等主要為害嫩梢、嫩葉害蟲。

      3.2.3合理修剪。可以直接清除大量病蟲,降低發生基數,同時剪除病枝病葉,增加茶園通風透氣性,降低蟲害發生概率。

      3.2.4冬季封園,消滅越冬病蟲。秋冬季茶園結合深耕挖蛹施基肥,殺死部分蟲蛹如多數的茶尺蠖蛹、茶麗紋象甲的卵、幼蟲等。還可將表土層中越冬的害蟲如象甲類、蠐螬幼蟲暴露于地面,使之因環境不適或機械損傷或被天敵捕食而致死,減少出土成蟲數量,減輕為害。

      3.2.5清潔茶園。茶葉多種病蟲害在茶葉枯枝落葉、雜草、病枝葉上越冬,及時剪除病蟲枝,清除雜草、枯枝落葉、病葉,集中銷毀減少病蟲源基數。有機肥要充分高溫腐熟,殺死病蟲源。

      3.3理化誘控

      利用害蟲成蟲趨光性、趨色性及對信息素的趨性,在害蟲成蟲主害代羽化前安裝殺蟲燈、誘蟲色板、性信息素誘捕器進行誘殺。振頻式誘捕燈、性誘劑:可用于輔助防治鱗翅目害蟲成蟲;粘蟲板:黃色可用于輔助治蚜蟲、白粉虱、木虱等同翅目害蟲;藍色可用于輔助防治薊馬。

      3.3.1燈光誘殺害蟲。

      每2~3.33hm2茶園安裝1盞殺蟲燈,燈離地面1.5m,4月上旬~10月底夜間開燈,誘殺害蟲。通過太陽能殺蟲燈的誘殺,把茶毛蟲、茶尺蠖等茶園害蟲的成蟲消滅在產卵前,使茶園害蟲發生量明顯減少。

      3.3.2性誘誘殺害蟲。

      茶園掛放性誘捕器,誘殺茶小綠葉蟬、茶尺蠖、茶毛蟲等害蟲。可用于輔助防治鱗翅目害蟲成蟲。

      3.3.3色板誘殺害蟲。

      667m2均勻插掛20~25片大小為20cm×40cm的色板,色板高出茶樹樹冠30cm,誘殺葉蟬、蚜蟲等,提升茶葉的品質。當色板懸掛時間過長或者表面粘蟲效果下降后要及時更換色板。井岡山市為推動綠色有機產業的發展,通過政府帶動,企業跟進的模式,采購了大批振頻式太陽能殺蟲燈、性誘劑、色板等綠色防控物質,以物化補助的形式,先行扶持一批走綠色有機認證方向的企業。

      3.4安全科學用藥

      適時適量施用高效低毒低殘留化學農藥防治茶樹病蟲害。可在害蟲低齡幼蟲高峰期,選用聯苯菊酯、高效氟氯氰菊酯等藥劑防治茶尺蠖;選用聯苯菊酯等藥劑防治茶毛蟲;選用聯苯菊酯、蟲螨腈、唑蟲酰胺、甲維·噻蟲嗪等藥劑防治茶小綠葉蟬。在病害發生初期,選用百菌清、甲基硫菌靈等藥劑防治茶云紋葉枯病。

      4取得的成效

      4.1經濟效益

      綠色防控技術為井岡山市茶葉產業標準化生產提供了技術支持。農藥施用量及施用次數的減少使得茶葉品質明顯提高,價格也有所提高。667m2茶葉增收200~300元,節約農藥使用成本60~80元,茶農增收260~380元。

      4.2生態效益

      茶葉產業在種植和建園過程,茶樹本身就是綠化樹種,對涵養耕地,保護土地資源,增強農業的可持續發展能力等方面都有積極的作用。通過推廣綠色防控技術,井岡山市茶園的農藥施用次數和使用量都有所減少,尤其是化學農藥。據調查統計,化學農藥的使用量減少了25%左右,降低了茶葉農殘,保護了生態環境和茶園害蟲天敵,控制了病蟲害的發生。

      4.3社會效益

      通過綠色防控技術的推廣,大大增強茶農對茶葉產品的安全意識和對生態環境的保護意識,降低了農民對化學農藥的依賴施用。減少了化學農藥的使用量,降低了茶葉生產成本,保障了茶葉產品的質量,達到生態、環境與經濟發展的協調統一,良性循環發展。

      5存在的問題及建議

      5.1人才問題

      井岡山現代茶產業發展起步較晚,產業體系不完善,專業技術人才隊伍薄弱,組織化程度低,農民和企業缺乏相應的技術培訓指導,是制約井岡山茶產業發展的主要薄弱環節。綠色防控技術是未來茶園發展的方向,缺乏相應的技術人員勢必會影響井岡山市茶產業的發展。需要引進技術人才,健全和加強茶產業技術服務體系,實施茶產業人才發展戰略。

      5.2成本問題

      茶樹綠色防控技術的成本高、門檻高。如果沒有高品質的茶葉質量及銷路,比較難推廣。所以前期只能是政府投入為主,示范引路,慢慢帶動其他的企業自主地投入到這個行業中來。井岡山為國家級旅游景區,城鄉收入差距較大,農村勞動力往城里轉移趨勢明顯,使當地茶區勞動力成本比周邊茶區高1倍以上,而茶葉生產為勞動密集型,茶園管理和采茶均需大量勞動力,茶區的茶葉生產成本約占茶園產值的50%,導致當地茶青價格高,茶企更愿意到外地購買茶青運往井岡山,影響了本地茶青的銷路。

      茶產業鏈的缺損,挫傷了農民的種茶積極性。借助井岡山市為國家級旅游景區的優勢,探索“以旅帶茶、以茶促旅、茶旅互動”的發展道路,揚長避短,特色發展。如進行游客DIY茶葉采摘、制作。以此降低人工成本,使費用往綠色防控技術上轉移。

      參考文獻:

      [1]李玉華.思茅區茶園綠色防控技術及成效[J].農家科技旬刊,2017(2).

      [2]曹劍榮.生態茶園病蟲害綠色防控技術初探[J].綠色科技,2017(21).

      [3]舒克明,宋建文.峨眉山市茶園病蟲害綠色防控技術集成與示范[J].南方農業,2016(33):69-70.

      [4]蘇金妹.華安縣茶園綠色防控技術措施與成效[J].福建農業,2011(9):11-11.

      農業類刊物推薦:南方農業學報是國內外公開發行的綜合性農業學術期刊,主要刊登基礎理論和應用技術研究方面的學術論文,包括研究報告、技術經驗總結、研究簡報、文獻綜述與調查報告等,涉及農業自然科學交叉領域方面具有創新性、先進性、學術性、應用性的充分反映我國南方地區農業技術創新和農業科研成果,突出南方熱帶、亞熱帶農業特色。

      

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