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    農業論文

    林業病蟲害防治技術及應用方法淺談

    時間:2019年03月14日 所屬分類:農業論文 點擊次數:

    摘要:介紹了目前林業病蟲害防治工作中存在的主要問題,提出了相應對策,探討了當前常用的林業病蟲害防治技術與方法。 關鍵詞:林業病蟲害,防治,方法 林業病蟲害防治是國家減災工程的重要組成部分,對保護森林資源,改善生態環境,促進國民經濟和社會可持續

      摘要:介紹了目前林業病蟲害防治工作中存在的主要問題,提出了相應對策,探討了當前常用的林業病蟲害防治技術與方法。

      關鍵詞:林業病蟲害,防治,方法

    林業論文

      林業病蟲害防治是國家減災工程的重要組成部分,對保護森林資源,改善生態環境,促進國民經濟和社會可持續發展具有十分重要的意義。遵義縣三渡鎮林業病蟲害防治工作在各級有關部門的大力支持下,防治技術手段和防治成效不斷提高,整體抗災減災能力得到增強,使得林業病蟲害以“預防為主,科學防控,依法治理,促進健康”的防治方針得到全面落實。

      三渡鎮位于遵義縣的東部,位于洛安江與流沖河、湄江河之間,林業用地10370hm2,以松、杉用材林為主,森林綠化覆蓋率達74.92%。2008年集體林權制度改革頒證林地面積為4590.6hm2,區劃界定國家級公益林2433.3hm2,地方公益林1456.9hm2,珍稀古樹171株,其中有1棵珍稀楠木胸徑180cm,冠幅接近667m2。林業病蟲害對于林業的建設危害十分嚴重,林業專業技術從業者應該借鑒和學習相關的經驗技術,積極治理林業病蟲害,更好地發揮林業在生態文明建設中的作用。

      1林業病蟲害防治工作中存在的主要問題

      1.1對病蟲害防治工作的重視程度不高

      長期以來,人們對于林業病蟲害的治理不夠重視,在林業建設過程中,病蟲害的頻繁發生就會給林業生產帶來嚴重的經濟損失。我國林業在治理病蟲害方面雖然有著較多的新型技術,但是有些技術沒有很好地應用到林業實際操作過程中。主要原因在于林業工作者對林業病蟲害防治沒有正確的認識,從而使得較多的防治技術難以得到充分的利用。

      1.2林業站業務技術水平總體不高

      林業病蟲害的防治工作,需要專業化程度比較高的技術人員開展相關林業病蟲害的防治,除此之外,豐富的病蟲害防治經驗也是需要考慮的因素。但在目前的林業病蟲害防治工作中,尤其在鄉鎮一級普遍缺乏具有專業林業病蟲害防治技術的工作人員,導致林業病蟲害防治工作質量不高。

      1.3林業病蟲害監測預報工作有待提高

      由于林業病害蟲發生范圍廣,危害巨大,因此必須重視林業病蟲害的監測預報工作,爭取在災害發生前就進行準確的監測預報,以減少病蟲害發生后造成的巨大危害。但現實情況是,由于鄉鎮一級在經費、技術不足,重視程度不夠等原因,缺乏必要的監測、防治、檢疫儀器設備等,病蟲害的防治率低,先進適用防治技術的研究與推廣跟不上,導致不能有效地控制災情,可能會出現災情嚴重,危害效果難以估量的情況發生。

      2林業病蟲害的防治管理措施

      2.1加大林業病蟲害防治的資金投入及人才引進

      要對林業病蟲害的防治加以重視,增加林業病蟲害防治工作的資金投入,增加林木檢疫站,引進更多先進的病蟲害防治技術和完善的病蟲害監測預警設施,以增強林業病蟲害防治工作的力度。引進更多的林業病蟲害防治相關的人才和不定期邀請有關專家進行現場指導等,提高病蟲害的防治質量,明確檢疫部門職責,提高病蟲害監測和檢疫工作的效率。

      2.2加強林業病蟲害的監測預防工作

      森林病蟲害的危害大,傳播速度快,科學偵查害蟲的動態非常必要。鄉鎮作為基層林業部門,必須重視林業病蟲害的監測工作,配合專人運用高科技,全面準確及時地掌握林業病蟲害的發生。當前,體系建設的重點是國家級中心測報點、省市縣重點測報點的儀器設備等基礎設施建設、技術手段的提高和管理制度的健全,要達到儀器設備現代化、技術先進、管理科學規范,使監測和測報能力能夠適應防治工作的需要。對發現有林業病蟲害的地區進行跟蹤治理,掐斷病蟲害的傳播源頭,防止危害的擴大。

      3林業病蟲害的防治技術措施

      3.1生物防治技術應用

      生物防治技術的應用主要是根據生物物種之間存在的關系去調整林業病蟲害群的密度。主要有以下3類:一類是昆蟲防治,通過在林業中引入病蟲害的天敵昆蟲,對病蟲害進行控制。這種防治技術不僅能夠減少病蟲害,還能夠起到維持生態平衡的作用。第二類是微生物防治技術。第三類是益鳥防治技術。森林中的鳥主要以害蟲為主食,將適當的鳥類放入森林可以有效降低病蟲害的發生。

      3.2物理防治技術應用

      物理防治技術在林業病蟲害的防治工作中屬于一種較為常用的防治技術,不會造成環境污染,簡單實用,能夠及時見到防治效果。目前物理防治技術中主要有3種:一是人工捕殺技術,這種方式比較適合于昆蟲;二是采取隔離的方式實現病蟲害的防治,在進行檢測的過程中,若某個區域內出現病蟲害的傾向,只需要將該區域進行隔離處理,就能夠防止病蟲害繼續向其他區域蔓延,減少病蟲害對林業的損害;三是誘殺,采取這種形式首先需要將昆蟲引誘到一個比較集中的地方,以便于在較短的時間內將昆蟲進行集體捕殺,經濟實惠。

      3.3化學防治技術

      化學防治技術能夠對病蟲害的根源起到殺滅的作用,是控制大面積病蟲害發生的主要措施。化學防治技術在森林病蟲害防治方面占據較大的比例。首先應該對病蟲害的面積進行預測,采用正確的方法噴灑農藥可以起到良好的防治效果。常用到的殺蟲劑主要有愛福丁、銳勁特等。

      另外還有一些殺菌劑,主要有百菌清、甲基托布津、多菌靈等。殺菌劑可分為3種,有鏟除劑、保護劑和內吸劑。其中,使用鏟除劑可以對病原物起到直接殺死的作用,而保護劑可以直接用于植物的身體上,在治理病蟲害的過程中能夠保護植物不受到農藥的傷害。內吸劑能夠讓植物直接吸入體內,對病蟲害的產生起到一定的抑制作用。其次,可以采用植物消毒或者土壤消毒的方式加強對植物的保護。化學防治病蟲害會使得植物和土壤受到污染,重復使用易使病蟲害產生抗性。

      4結語

      林業病蟲害的防治要以預防為主,科學防控,在相應的技術和可靠的方法的支撐下,更需要林業從業人員提高業務水平,加強對病蟲害的防治意識。另外,利用較為先進的病蟲害防治技術能夠最大限度地降低病蟲害發生后帶來的損失,同時科學合理的技術還能保障在進行病蟲害防治的過程中減少環境的破壞,提高林業病蟲害防治工作的效率,實現可持續發展。

      參考文獻:

      [1]吳道念.淺談林業病蟲害防治技術與方法初探[J].魅力中國,2014(1):293-293.

      [2]劉品華.林業病蟲害防治技術與方法初探[J].赤子,2014(6):297-297.

      [3]張曉歡.林業病蟲害防治技術方法初探[J].農民致富之友,2014(7):275-275.

      [4]邢曉達.淺析黑龍江省林業病蟲害防治[J].農家科技(下旬刊),2015,(07):248-248.

      [5]方傳錦.林業病蟲害防治問題及解決措施探析[J].綠色科技,2015,(09):200-201.

      林業工程師評職知識:林業類論文哪個雜志好錄用

      林業方向論文可投稿的雜志有很多,作者想要選擇好錄用的刊物,可以安排到級別較低的刊物上,一般刊物級別越低,審稿時間越短,錄用率越高,另外大家也需要注重自己的論文質量,只有質量好的論文,再投稿到適合的刊物上,那么投稿就比較好錄用了,下面小編也給大家推薦了幾本林業方向好錄用的雜志,希望對于大家發表職稱論文有幫助。

      

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