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    科學技術論文

    關于礦山地質環境保護與治理措施的探討

    時間:2019年07月06日 所屬分類:科學技術論文 點擊次數:

    摘要:邢臺市煤化工、冶金和建材的礦產資源豐富,分布集中,便于開發利用。礦產資源開發加速了邢臺市化工、建材及相關產業的形成與發展。但是長期大規模、超強度的礦產資源開發,對邢臺市礦山生態環境造成了嚴重破壞,同時也增加了化學污染和地質災害的風險,

      摘要:邢臺市煤化工、冶金和建材的礦產資源豐富,分布集中,便于開發利用。礦產資源開發加速了邢臺市化工、建材及相關產業的形成與發展。但是長期大規模、超強度的礦產資源開發,對邢臺市礦山生態環境造成了嚴重破壞,同時也增加了化學污染和地質災害的風險,特別是對土壤環境產生顯著影響。結合作者的工作經驗,文章以礦山土壤環境保護為立足點,重點分析礦山開采造成的環境污染、地址災害及相應的管理防治措施。

      關鍵詞:礦山地質;土壤環境;防治措施

    江西地質

      邢臺市礦產資源豐富,煤、鐵、石膏、菱鎂礦、石灰巖等礦產資源優勢明顯,是河北省礦產資源豐富地區之一。礦產資源開發加速了邢臺市煤化工、冶金和建材及后續加工產業的形成與發展,為邢臺市乃至河北省國民經濟和社會發展做出了重大貢獻。但是,長期大規模、超強度的礦產資源開發,對邢臺市礦山生態環境造成了嚴重破壞同時誘發了多種地質災害[1]。

      特別是在礦山開發利用土壤環境保護方面,由于本市礦產資源豐富、開采方式粗放簡單、治污設施運行效率低下、土壤作為大部分污染物的最終受體,其環境質量受到顯著影響。本文以邢臺市礦山土壤環境保護為立足點,結合邢臺市礦山活動土壤環境特點,重點分析礦山開采造成的土壤環境污染、地質災害及相應的管理防治措施。

      1邢臺市礦產資源概況及特點[2]

      邢臺市礦產資源豐富,種類繁多,目前已發現各類礦產47種,礦產地246處,列入《河北省礦產資源儲量表》的礦產29種,礦產地132處。礦產資源集中,便于開發利用,煤、鐵、石膏、菱鎂礦、石灰巖等礦產資源優勢明顯,煤礦資源儲量居全省第三位,鐵礦資源居全省第五位,石膏礦資源儲量居全省第一位,目前鐵礦淺部資源已基本開發完,而深部資源由于受開發條件限制,近期難以利用。

      2礦產開發造成的土壤環境污染與地質災害

      2.1礦區周邊土壤損失和污染

      在礦產開發過程中,會損失了大面積的土壤資源,特別是在小礦山泛濫、大礦山被分割為一個個小礦體的情況下,完整的礦藏被開采的星羅棋布,無形中造成了更多的資源的浪費和土壤的損失。礦產開采產生的粉塵、礦山破碎、篩分、選礦等加工過程產生的粉塵、固體廢棄物風化作用釋放的廢氣等有害氣體經過風化、雨淋、凍融各種途徑進入土壤,極易造成土壤的強酸、有機毒物與重金屬污染。另外,礦產開發活動改變了礦區周邊的地質、地形地貌、植被覆蓋、水源涵養等生態環境,從而導致當地礦區土地的應用價值降低,影響當地農業或旅游業的發展,對當地的國民經濟發展也相應產生不利影響。

      2.2固體廢棄物污染[3]

      礦山開采中必然產生大量無工業價值的固體廢棄物,例如采礦廢石(包括煤矸石)、鐵、鋅等選冶尾礦、冶煉廢渣等。大量土地特別是礦區周邊土地被固體廢棄物被堆放、占用,在企業處理處置不當的情況下,固體廢棄物中含有大量有害化學物質和重金屬不斷被風化、雨淋滲入土壤和地下水,帶來二次污染,一旦進入土壤和地下水,治理的難度和范圍的跨度將大幅提高。同時堆積的大量廢棄物在洪水暴雨時也可能誘發滑坡、泥石流等地質災害。

      2.3采礦活動破壞水資源

      礦產開發過程中,部分礦山企業要進行礦坑排水工作,長期的礦坑排水不同程度地改變或破壞了地下水補、徑、排系統,造成了區域地下水位下降,甚至出現地下水疏干、地下水水位傾斜下降等現象。采礦活動會排放大量的廢水、廢液,進而污染地表土壤和地下水,對當地人居環境與工農業生產產生嚴重影響。

      2.4礦山地質災害[2]

      礦山地質災害具有分布廣、類型復雜、頻度高、突出性強、隱患多、災情嚴重等特點。不同的采礦方式,導致的地質災害也不同。過量開采地下水,會導致地面沉降,如南宮巨鹿一帶造成地面下沉等。礦山開采支撐礦柱破損,會導致地面塌陷。不合理設計邊坡,會造成邊坡失去穩定,進而滑坡與崩塌。地質災害嚴重影響了生態地質環境。同時,礦山地質災害造成大量人員傷亡和經濟損失,危害嚴重。

      3礦山地質土壤環境保護與管理防治措施

      3.1落實國家政策、規劃

      根據《國務院關于印發土壤污染防治行動計劃的通知》、《河北省“凈土行動”土壤污染防治工作方案》和《邢臺市生態環境保護“十三五”規劃》,結合邢臺市礦山地質環境現狀與發展趨勢,制定印發了《邢臺市礦山開發利用土壤環境保護規劃(2017-2020年)》,要求到2020年,礦山及周邊土壤環境質量顯著改善,生產礦山實現全面治理,修復綠化重點區域責任主體滅失露天礦山跡地,礦山開發利用土壤生態環境管理長效機制健全完善,礦山開發利用對周邊土壤生態環境的影響大幅減少。

      3.2加強資源開發全過程環境保護預防

      堅持“采前預防、采中治理、采后恢復”的原則,實行礦產資源開發利用全過程管理,從源頭上強化礦山地質環境保護。采礦權審批和礦山建設階段,嚴格執行建設項目環境影響評價制度,實行嚴格的生態環境準入,明確采礦權人保護礦山地質環境的責任和義務。加強對礦產開發影響區域內未利用地的環境監管,環保部門應責令責任單位及時采取隔離、阻斷、清理、修復等有效防治措施,控制污染范圍擴大,逐步減緩污染程度。暫時難以修復治理的,應明確監管的責任主體,禁止農業生產、商業開發等活動。

      3.3開展礦山地質環境詳細調查與監測

      結合全市土壤污染源普查等工作成果,根據礦山分布和排污狀況,確定全市土壤環境重點監管礦山名單,實施動態管理。列入名單的礦山,責任單位要自行或委托有資質的環境監測機構,開展土壤有害物質環境監測,監測數據和報告向當地環保部門備案并向社會公開。

      3.4開展礦山治理與修復

      根據礦山地質環境現狀評估結果,按照輕重緩急,分批次治理恢復的原則,以“自然保護區、風景名勝區、水源保護區”、主要交通干線兩側和主城區周邊為重點,對已存在的礦區災害點重點深度整治,環境污染、生態破壞、亂采濫挖嚴重露天礦山必須取締關停,不符合規劃、排污不達標停產整治,同時開展對露天礦山修復綠化行動,推動全市露天礦山減少污染、改善生態。

      4結語

      隨著我國社會經濟迅猛發展,礦產資源開采必需堅持環境保護為前提,從而最大限度降低對生態環境破壞[4],保證礦業長遠和可持續發展。

      參考文獻:

      [1]陳奇.礦山環境治理技術與治理模式研究[D].北京:中國礦業大學,2009.

      [2]李磊.邢臺地區礦山地質環境綜合評價與治理恢復研究[D].石家莊:石家莊經濟學院,2013.

      [3]周恩澤.礦山開采對環境的影響及防治措施探討[J].資源信息與工程,2017,32(3):188-189.

      [4]余鵬程,白彥波,陳孝兵.礦山地質環境影響治理分析[J].科技資訊,2013,(19):115-116.

      地質類期刊推薦:江西地質是以地質科技為主要內容的綜合性學術期刊。主要報道地學及相關學科理論研究、應用研究成果,國土資源調查、規劃、保護和合理開發利用成果,區域資源開發與環境保護、減災防災成果,地學新理論、新技術、新方法、新發現和新進展的介紹和評述,礦政管理、地礦經濟發展的合理化建議。

      

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