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    科學技術論文

    高層建筑工程后澆帶施工技術應用

    時間:2019年07月01日 所屬分類:科學技術論文 點擊次數:

    [摘要]本文從高層建筑的質量出發,分析了后澆帶技術的概念,從設計和施工以及施工過程中的質量控制點等方面出發,論述了后澆帶技術在高層建筑工程的應用。 [關鍵詞]后澆帶法;施工技術;高層建筑;應用 1后澆帶的概述 為適應環境溫度變化、混凝土收縮、結構不均

      [摘要]本文從高層建筑的質量出發,分析了后澆帶技術的概念,從設計和施工以及施工過程中的質量控制點等方面出發,論述了后澆帶技術在高層建筑工程的應用。

      [關鍵詞]后澆帶法;施工技術;高層建筑;應用

    建筑結構

      1后澆帶的概述

      為適應環境溫度變化、混凝土收縮、結構不均勻沉降等因素影響,在梁、板(包括基礎底板)、墻等結構中預留的具有一定寬度且經過一定時間后再澆筑的混凝土帶即為后澆帶。施工后澆帶分為后澆沉降帶、后澆收縮帶和后澆溫度帶,分別用于解決高層主樓與低層裙房間差異沉降、鋼筋混凝土收縮變形相減小溫度應力等問題,后澆帶技術的應用對提高高層建筑的質量有著非常重要的意義[1,2]。

      2后澆帶在項目中的應用

      2.1項目概況

      山西晉中市寇村新村項目位于山西晉中榆次工業園區,總規劃用地面積為66888.10m2,總建筑面積219833.76m2,商住混合用地。本項目由1#樓、2#樓、3#樓、4#樓均為23層商品住址塔樓及2層底商、地下室組成。

      2.2后澆帶的設計和施工工藝要求

      2.2.1后澆帶的平面布置

      后澆帶的平面布置應以“抗防兼備,以防為主”的原則盡可能設計在結構內力較小的部位,對于地下室應設計在形體變化交界處;對于超長樓面后澆帶的設置,應通過以降低溫差和收縮應力的條件下計算。后澆帶的間距應合理,矩形構筑物后澆帶間距一般可設為30~40m。后澆帶的寬度應考慮便于施工操作,并按結構構造要求而定,一般寬度以700~1000mm為宜。

      2.2.2后澆帶的支撐體系

      后澆帶的模板及支撐必須經過計算獨立設置,盡量采用上下可調支撐,確保受力穩定,否則可能造成梁板上部裂縫和后澆帶下撓,頂板下沉等質量事故。注意事項:第一,后澆帶兩側保留受荷支撐不少于2排,排距不大于1m;第二,被后澆帶斷開而形成懸臂的結構梁,要留有早拆支撐,以備其他支撐拆除后留作受荷支撐;第三,后澆帶保留的支撐,水平方向應加設拉結,以防失穩;第四,模板的安裝尺寸按圖紙要求和現場的軸線定位安裝。模板拼縫嚴密,支撐牢固。

      2.2.3后澆帶的鋼筋處理后澆帶的鋼筋

      處理的規范與否直接影響后期的質量好壞。后澆帶的鋼筋處理應嚴格按照以下幾點進行:第一,后澆帶的梁板受力鋼筋必須斷開,筏板基礎底板受力鋼筋必須貫通;第二,受力主筋宜采用焊接連接,后澆帶的加筋一般不超過原配筋率的30%;第三,鋼筋綁扎時后澆帶兩側的混凝土墊塊及馬凳應增加用量,確保鋼筋網片高度和保護層,后澆帶范圍內的馬凳和墊塊也應加密放置;第四,當設計對后澆帶有附加鋼筋要求的,在后澆帶兩側鋼筋綁扎時,附加鋼筋一同綁扎完成。

      2.2.4后澆帶的混凝土澆筑

      該項目特別注重后澆帶混凝土的澆筑過程,從而避免了很多質量問題。以下是關于后澆帶混凝土澆筑的注意事項:第一,應留置混凝土強度塊及抗滲強度試塊(設計有抗滲要求),后澆帶的混凝土強度等級應提高一個強度等級后澆筑,且宜采用早強補償收縮混凝土,同時限制膨脹率等指標應符合設計要求;第二,澆筑后澆帶混凝土前,應清除垃圾,剔除表面上松動砂石及浮漿,同時加以鑿毛,用水清洗干凈并濕潤不少于24h;第三,在底板和墻位置,混凝土應分層振搗,每層不超過400mm;第四,收縮后澆帶一般在兩側混凝土澆筑完成60天,沉降后澆帶應在結構頂板澆筑混凝土14天后進行澆筑。

      3后澆帶技術施工過程中的質量控制點

      3.1加強對施工人員的管理及操作控制

      在后澆帶施工過程中要對施工人員加強管理,在確保施工人員人身安全的基礎上,對施工人員的施工操作進行嚴格控制,確保后澆帶作業科學、有效進行,達到國家建筑工程的相關技術指標及施工驗收規范。

      3.2后澆帶的防水預防措施

      根據本工程的施工經驗,后澆帶往往因為處理不當及施工不規范會成為建筑結構中滲漏的薄弱環節,給后期建筑質量造成很大的影響。以下為后澆帶防水構造中幾點預防措施:第一,后澆帶混凝土應采用二次振搗法,以提高密實性和界面的結合力;第二,施工前接縫面應用鋼絲刷清理并鑿毛;第三,后澆帶澆筑施工宜在兩側混凝土收縮變形基本完成后進行;第四,后澆帶界面部位宜設置外貼式止水帶、埋設膨脹止水條或涂刷聚合物水泥漿料;第五,后澆帶用遇水膨脹止水條或止水膠、預埋注漿管、外貼式止水帶必須符合設計要求。

      3.3后澆帶的成品保護措施后澆帶的成品保護

      是否到位直接影響后澆帶的質量。以下為幾點措施:第一,對整個現場后澆帶位置予以標識,通過各種標識管理提醒施工人員注意成品保護;第二,后澆帶鋼筋由于長期暴露于環境中,極易造成鋼筋銹蝕,因此需要對整個后澆帶鋼筋進行保護。后澆帶在兩側鋼筋施工完成后,對后澆帶預留鋼筋涂刷防銹漆,并與上部覆蓋塑料薄膜,避免水分滲入;第三,后澆帶模板支設完成后,應隨著結構施工不得隨意調整,對于后澆帶兩側混凝土強度達到拆模強度后,下部架體拆除時,不得擾動后澆帶模板支撐體系,架體拆除距離后澆帶邊緣2m范圍處;第四,后澆帶兩側基礎底板和平臺澆筑后,在后澆帶上側砌筑120mm寬、60mm高的磚帶。磚帶與底板面轉角處用1∶2水泥砂漿抹成圓弧,上部先覆蓋一層塑料薄膜或彩條布,再覆蓋一層竹夾板,以確保后澆帶內無上部結構的漏漿、雜物。

      4結束語

      后澆帶施工技術是保證建筑結構有效連接的重要環節。只有在綜合考慮各方面因素的前提下,完善后澆帶的施工技術,嚴格按照相關標準進行施工,做好后續保養工作,才能確保后澆帶的質量,從而更好地實現后澆帶技術運用在高層建筑中的作用與功能。

      [參考文獻]

      [1]李國勝.后澆帶設置問題的深入探討[J].建筑結構,2019,49(03):38-45+37.

      [2]范榮輝,李鑫奎,譚英輝.地下室底板取消沉降后澆帶的技術分析與應用[J].建筑施工,2018,40(12):2044-2047.

      建筑工程師投稿刊物:《建筑結構》為面向全國建筑工程界的科技刊物,是我國建筑科學類核心期刊和建設部優秀科技期刊。《建筑結構》以服務國民經濟建設、繁榮建筑科學技術、推動我國建筑科學技術進步為宗旨;以實用性、科學性、系統性、導向性和信息資料性為特色,是我國建筑結構、土木工程領域的一份重要刊物。

      

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