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    科學技術論文

    機械類人才創新創業能力培養模式

    時間:2019年06月06日 所屬分類:科學技術論文 點擊次數:

    【摘要】培養大學生創新創業能力是我國高校的首要任務,其辦學質量與辦學水平在很大程度上決定了學生的創新創業能力。本文主要針對機械類專業培養體系之中,學生創新創業能力的培養構建做出一些簡單研究。探索如何將課堂理論與實踐相互結合,構建學生在實踐

      【摘要】培養大學生創新創業能力是我國高校的首要任務,其辦學質量與辦學水平在很大程度上決定了學生的創新創業能力。本文主要針對機械類專業培養體系之中,學生創新創業能力的培養構建做出一些簡單研究。探索如何將課堂理論與實踐相互結合,構建學生在實踐之中提高創新創業能力的培養體系。

      【關鍵詞】機械類人才,創新創業能力,培養模式

    當代教育理論與實踐

      1引言

      由于我國工業相對于發達國家而言起步較晚,其機械類工業設計專業也處于一個探索階段,目前依舊存在著一定的教學缺陷。比如說在高校機械類專業課堂之上,理論教學占據了教學的主體部分,其工業實踐相對較少,學生對于各類機床認知,操作認知,實踐認知都相對較少,對于構圖軟件的應用,工業設計的計算等學習較多,忽視了實際加工的困難與現實性。創新創業類人才在機械類“產值”也相對較少,這很大程度上是取決于我國高校人才培養體系的。要知道隨著科技的不斷發展,機械設計專業人才要能夠不斷的切合實踐發展區拓展自己的知識面和認知能力,在實踐之中去不斷的培養自己的工程能力,實踐能力,組織能力等,只有這樣才能夠培養出良好的創新創業能力[1]。

      2機械類人才創新創業能力培養模式

      2.1明確教學任務和人才培養戰略

      對于各高校而言,加強機械類人才的專業特色定位,明確課堂教學任務和機械類創新創業人才培養戰略模式是十分重要的。只有明確目標才能夠確定具體實施方案。筆者認為,各個高校需要不斷地審視總體教學目標,根據多年的教學經驗和教學成果去發掘教學優勢,改變教學劣勢,加強課程與課程之間的總體銜接,拓展學生各類創新創業活動的參與力度。

      近些年來,教育部對于大學生創新創業也給予了大力的支持,推行“大學生創新訓練計劃”,旨在讓學生在學習的過程之中不斷提升自己的專業知識,將知識很好地融入到實踐之中,并且不斷提升自我創新能力,為自己在社會競爭之中做出貢獻。那么,在不同的高校之中,對于創新型人才的需求也是不一樣的。例如,在各類985,211雙一流等重點院校之中,旨在培養學生的科研能力,創新能力。而一般的應用型高校,旨在培養學生的應用型能力,只有這種根據學生的需求而去制定的創新型教學模式才是貼合學生發展需求的培養模式。

      教師應當在課堂之中拋棄傳統的理念知識,將知識型授課轉變為“能力型”授課,確定社會對于人才的需求,按照重視基礎,結合實踐,強化能力的三步培養模式進行專業人才的培養。加強對于學生的創業支持,開設大學生創業孵化基地,設立低利息的大學生創業貸款。那么只有將這種教學與實踐不斷結合的方式,才能夠更好地適應社會的培養。

      2.2加強創業輔導,提倡一帶一或者是多帶一

      對于高校學生的創業計劃或者是創業比賽教師要給予足夠的支持和重視,積極地幫助學生拓寬創業項目的面,尋求有利的創業指導教師給學生進行一對一或者是多對一的專項輔導,對于創業計劃書進行簡單規劃,分析其市場可行性。那么在這樣的創業結構模式之下,充分利用好學科優勢,進行學科重點創新。對于機械類學生而言,可以成立網上機械科技服務網站,拓寬與工廠的對接力度,幫助工廠及時的解決一些技術或者是生產困難原因。這需要學生有足夠的耐心在一線去鍛煉。

      也需要教師的支持和輔導。甚至,機械類學生可以發揮繪圖專長,為各個企業的門店網站制作二維圖,三維圖,可以利用CAD、PROE等常見的繪圖工具進行實體器械的繪制。這也需要學生具備極強的專業素質,甚至,教師可以帶動學生參與到科研活動致中,創造出能夠大大減少加工工序的部件專利,這也是一種有效的創新創業教學模式。

      2.3完善實踐環節的規劃,利用筆者發現,很多高校學生在大四是有很長一段時間去實習的。那么在這么長的一段時間之內,很多學生是會選擇“放松”自己的,他們會隨便找一個企業蓋章請假,然后單純的就是在家里玩。其實這是對這一段時間的及其不負責任。這一段時間可以說是學生提升能力最為重要的一個階段,也是創業的黃金時機。

      學生通過三年的知識理論積累,已經具備了一定的能力,教師完成可以鼓勵學生在這個空閑階段進行創業活動。可以對于學生的創業基地給予免費開放,對學生的創業資金給予無息貸款,對于學生的各類要求也盡量滿足。那么在這樣的條件之下,學生的創業活動可以說是會輕松很多。那么,對于不愿意創業的同學,可以鼓勵他們參與到工廠實踐活動之中,對實踐考核加大考核力度,確保學生在這么長的一段時間內是能夠學習到東西的。在這樣的實踐課程體系之中,一定要能夠按照教育局的指導要求和中心思想進行,不斷探索和嘗試新的,好的創新教學方式。

      2.4成果與創新

      對于各項創業活動的實施必須要能總結出一定的成果與創新之處,無論是為工業設計創新制定的創業人才培養目標和培養計劃還是圍繞創業人才展開的教育,都要能夠有一定的成果反饋[2]。創新創業并不是盲目的創新和創業,開設一家奶茶店,開設一家水果店這也是創業,但是不適用于機械類學生的創業,要能夠找準創業支持方向,做到術業有專攻。以強化妝業知識,提升學生專業能力為根本要求,通過各種創新創業課程的加強鞏固去提升學生的實踐能力,這樣的創新創業課堂才是有意義的課堂。這樣的教學課程改革才是能夠真正給學生帶來一定直接益處的教學。

      3結論

      基于我國工業發展現狀,加強學生的實踐創新創業指導對于我國的工業設計發展有著十分重要的意義。無論是人才的培養目標方向,還是專業課程體系的構建以及最終教學成果的總結等等,這些細節工作一定要能夠完善到位,確保為學生搭建一個高效,完善的創新創業實踐平臺,為我國工業設計探索和研究做出貢獻。

      參考文獻

      [1]邢江浩,吳志軍.基于學科競賽的工業設計專業人才培養改革探討[J].當代教育理論與實踐,2015(8):89-91.

      [2]曾祥遠,聶路.面向福建工業設計專業教育的產學研協同創新平臺構建[J].創新人才教育,2015(1):3.

      教育類刊物推薦:當代教育理論與實踐創刊于1980年,是由湖南科技大學主辦的教育學術理論刊物,原名《湘潭師范學院學報(社會科學版)》,2008年12月經國家新聞出版總署批準,更改為現刊名,每月20日前出版。熱忱歡迎業界專家、學者和學術工作者來稿。

      

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