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    科學技術論文

    基于云計算平臺的室內環境監測系統設計與實現

    時間:2019年05月15日 所屬分類:科學技術論文 點擊次數:

    摘要:針對目前國內室內環境監測系統普及度較低和舒適度測試需求,設計并實現了一種基于云計算平臺的室內環境監測系統。基于物聯網技術通過多傳感器對室內環境信息進行采集,采集數據通過無線傳感網絡存儲到云端數據庫。云計算平臺采用二級融合算法對采集數據

      摘要:針對目前國內室內環境監測系統普及度較低和舒適度測試需求,設計并實現了一種基于云計算平臺的室內環境監測系統。基于物聯網技術通過多傳感器對室內環境信息進行采集,采集數據通過無線傳感網絡存儲到云端數據庫。云計算平臺采用二級融合算法對采集數據進行分析處理并提供Web服務,用戶可以通過網頁或者終端實時查看室內環境并得到反饋結果。實驗結果表明:設計的系統成本低、功耗小,易擴展,能夠全面地對室內環境進行監測、統計和舒適度評價,具有較好的實用價值。

      關鍵詞:云計算,神經網絡,D-S證據理論,環境監測

    電子設計工程

      室內環境的健康舒適和安全等方面因素得到了很多國家和地區的關注,具有很大的研究價值。文獻[1]通過對室內熱環境舒適度評價及有害氣體濃度預警,設計并實現了室內環境監測系統。文獻[2]運用無線傳感網絡和通用分組無線業務(generalpacketradioservice,GPRS)無線通信技術對室內的溫度、甲醛和CO進行監測。

      文獻[3]通過ZigBee技術和WiFi技術相結合,完成了一種基于物聯網的室內環境監測系統。但目前對室內環境監測及評價研究大都只是針對于室內單一環境因素,不足之處在于對室內環境的監測及舒適性評估存在一定的局限性。本文綜合考慮聲、光、熱環境和室內空氣質量對人的影響,通過物聯網技術和云計算平臺,將室內各環境相結合,得到室內環境綜合評價結果,極大地提高了室內環境監測系統的準確性和有效性。

      1室內環境監測系統設計

      該系統由數據采集子系統和云計算處理平臺兩部分組成。采集子系統使用CC2530作為控制單元,針對室內聲、光、熱環境及空氣品質監測分別采用對應的傳感器組:溫濕度傳感器采用DHT11,光照度傳感器選用GY—485—44009,噪聲模塊選用AS11—X,甲醛濃度檢測模塊選用DS—HCHO,總揮發性有機化合物(totalvolatileorganiccompound,TVOC)濃度檢測模塊選用KQM2801A,CO2濃度檢測傳感器選用S8—0053。傳感器組在采集同時對應編號處理,以便對不同采集點進行識別,采集數據通過無線傳感網絡存儲到云服務器數據庫,以便云計算平臺進行數據處理,云計算平臺通過神經網絡和D-S(Dempster-Shafer)證據理論兩級數據融合對室內環境進行綜合評價并提供Web服務。

      2室內環境舒適度評價描述

      2.1室內熱環境舒適度評價

      本文對室內熱環境描述采用PMV-PDD指標[4]。PMV指標主要用于熱環境舒適度評價,而PDD指標表示人們對熱環境的不滿意系數,根據PMV-PDD模型計算以及ISO標準。

      2.2室內光環境舒適度評價

      對于室內光環境舒適度通過LPDD來評價,表示人們對照明光環境的滿意情況[5]。根據韋伯—費昔勒定律,在沒有強光閃爍的環境中,光環境舒適度可以用該環境中人眼光刺激LPMV指標來表示。

      2.3室內聲環境舒適度評價

      目前對噪聲的普遍評價是根據噪音的客觀因素,僅僅根據噪聲分貝的大小來評價噪聲的影響。本文從噪聲對人的影響四個維度來考慮,分別是噪聲影響正常交流、影響思考、影響休息以及噪聲導致人們情緒的變化。

      2.4室內空氣品質評價

      大多對室內環境監測研究中,基本都包含了室內空氣品質的實時監測。本文通過傳感器檢測室內CO2濃度、甲醛濃度和TVOC濃度來評價室內空氣質量[6],根據國家室內空氣質量標準GB/T18883—2002。

      3云計算平臺融合算法

      云計算平臺的處理首先通過神經網絡對室內各環境采集的數據進行特征級融合,然而神經網絡在預測過程中容易陷入局部極小點,存在識別度不足和準確性低等問題,D-S證據理論可以將證據之間微弱的差別進行累加,當這些差別累積到一定程度時就很方便進行區分,從而提高評價的準確率。本文通過D-S證據理論對特征級融合結果進行分析決策判斷,得到室內環境的綜合舒適度評價。

      3.1基于神經網絡的特征級融合算法

      根據熱舒適度指標PMV計算公式可知,其計算結果和輸入參數間存在復雜的非線性關系,計算PMV值的關鍵是求解tcl,而tcl的計算又依賴于hc,而hc的求解又依賴于tcl,其運算過程存在迭代嵌套。反向傳播(backpropagation,BP)神經網絡在很多領域都有廣泛的應用,但由于BP神經網絡采用基于梯度下降作為其學習算法,容易陷入局部極小值問題。而遺傳算法作為一種全局優化搜索方法,容易得到全局最優解,通過遺傳算法對BP網絡的初始權值和閾值進行優化。

      因此將遺傳算法與BP神經網絡結合,可以避免各自存在的問題,從而能夠達到快速收斂[7],通過遺傳算法進行優化得到BP網絡的初始權值和閾值,再通過BP算法進行學習。對于室內熱環境評價的神經網絡模型,其輸入層節點數為6個,即影響PMV指標的6個因素,其輸出為對應的PMV和PDD值。

      實驗時,將訓練精度設置為10-3,BP神經網絡通過89次滿足預期要求,而遺傳算法優化的神經網絡在滿足同等條件下僅需12次就達到了設定精度要求,對比可知,通過遺傳算法優化的BP神經網絡極大提高了BP網絡的收斂速度。

      4結論

      本文通過室內環境監測和舒適度融合評估問題,通過物聯網技術和云計算平臺開發了一種使用方便、成本低、穩定的室內環境監測系統。在云計算處理平臺實現了一種神經網絡與D-S證據理論相結合的兩級融合評價模型,將各環境相結合進行綜合評價,很好地克服了在傳統室內環境監測評估中,由于監測評估環境單一而產生的局限性和不確定性,提高了室內環境評價的可靠性和容錯能力,具有很好的實用性和市場價值。

      參考文獻:

      [1]孫占鵬,李佳,歐文.多傳感器室內環境監測系統[J].傳感器與微系統,2017,36(1):87-90.

      [2]劉向舉,劉麗娜.基于物聯網的室內環境監測系統的研究[J].傳感器與微系統,2013,32(3):37-39,42.

      [3]聞利群,秦斌偉,張會新,等.基于ZigBee和WiFi技術的室內環境安全監測系統設計[J].電子設計工程,2017,25(7):78-82.

      [4]ISO7730—19.Moderatethermalenvironment-determinationofthePMVandPDDindicesandthespecificationofconditionsforthermalcomfort[S].

      [5]左現廣,鄒勇惠,陳仲林.住宅起居室舒適照明研究[J].燈與照明,2003,27(1):21-23.

      [6]楊鴻翥.基于GA-BP的住宅室內空氣品質評價研究[D].武漢:華中科技大學,2007.

      電子刊物推薦:《電子設計工程》是1993年創刊,原名《國外電子元器件》,主要介紹具有較高學術水平的、電子領域相關的理論、技術、方法的專業性技術期刊。國內刊號CN:61-1477/TN,國際刊號ISSN:1674-6236。主要介紹當前比較先進的國內外電子技術、元器件技術及其應用的科學技術類期刊,主要囊括電源技術應用、工業自動化、網絡與通信工程、測控與儀器儀表、圖像與多媒體技術、汽車電子、消費類電子、嵌入式系統、信息安全以及計算機應用等領域。

      

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