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    科學技術論文

    水利工程質量監督性檢測要點研討及工程實例

    時間:2019年04月20日 所屬分類:科學技術論文 點擊次數:

    摘要:決定水利工程建設項目成敗的最重要指標之一就是工程實體質量是否滿足國家、行業現行規程規范要求,而工程實體質量從根本上講是通過施工全過程控制才能達到的。目前,對于工程實體質量的評判多以單元質量評定,以及施工自檢、監理平檢和完工后的外觀檢測

      摘要:決定水利工程建設項目成敗的最重要指標之一就是工程實體質量是否滿足國家、行業現行規程規范要求,而工程實體質量從根本上講是通過施工全過程控制才能達到的。目前,對于工程實體質量的評判多以單元質量評定,以及施工自檢、監理平檢和完工后的外觀檢測作為主要依據;客觀上講,質量評定結果可能存在失真性。對水利工程實體質量監督性檢測要點進行探討,以及在具體工程施工實踐的應用,以表明開展質量監督性檢測的重要性。

      關鍵詞:水利工程;工程實體質量;質量監督性檢測;要點;應用

    水利水電快報

      1概述

      水利工程實體質量的評判多以單元(工序)質量評定,以及施工自檢、監理平檢和完工后的無損檢測作為基本依據;客觀上講,可能存在失真性。為強調質量監督性檢測的重要性和權威性,水利部出臺了相關規章制度。《水利水電工程施工質量檢測與評定規程》(SL176—2007)之4.1.9條規定:項目法人、監理、設計、施工和工程質量監督等單位根據工程建設需要,可委托具有相應資質等級的水利工程質量檢測單位進行質量檢測。

      2013年1月,水利部印發《貫徹質量發展綱要提升水利工程質量的實施意見》(水建管〔2012〕581號),明確要求:質量監督機構應以巡視、抽查方式對水利工程實體質量進行監督檢查。總而言之,質量監督性檢測是對工程實體質量評介的重要手段,其目的除了真實評判實體質量以外,更重要的是對質量問題早發現早處理,屬于事前、事中控制的范疇。必須明確,質量監督性檢測是強制性的,受檢項目和受檢單位必須接受。

      2質量監督性檢測的要點

      2.1項目選擇要具備代表性

      畢竟質量監督性檢測需要地方財政提供專項經費作為支撐,有相關資質的檢測單位也有限,在目前水利建設大上快上的情況下,尚不能全面覆蓋。為此,宜選擇重點工程和民生工程、質量管理薄弱項目、質量行為不規范項目進行質量監督性檢測,以提高檢測工作的針對性和有效性。

      2.2檢測要具備突然性

      如果提前通知受檢單位,很可能現場就進行了一些準備,也就與真實、動態判斷工程實體質量的初衷相背。需要說明,水利工程特別是水庫工程建設受季節、氣候影響較大,開展質量監督性檢測應盡量不影響工程正常施工。

      2.3委托檢測單位要具備獨立性

      質量監督機構通常不具備法定檢測資質,只能委托具有相應資質等級的水利工程質量檢測單位進行質量監督性檢測。為體現公正、客觀,宜選擇施工自檢、監理平檢單位以外的其他檢測單位。

      2.4檢測范圍、檢測指標要具備針對性

      水利工程種類繁多、工程實施重點和運行工況各不相同,質量監督性檢測就必須針對受檢項目主體工程主要質量控制指標,以及涉及質量安全的重點部位、關鍵環節開展,否則就失去了檢測的意義。

      3質量監督性檢測實例

      為確保貴州省遵義市水利工程建設實體質量處于可控狀態,自2016年以來,筆者所在單位選擇重點項目開展了質量監督性檢測工作,對于質量監督機構真實評判工程實體質量有了量化的依據,取得了較好的效果。下面僅以具有代表性的實例———貴州省綏陽縣青龍堡水庫大壩主體工程進行分析。

      3.1項目基本情況

      青龍堡水庫工程座落在綏陽縣城西部20km的洛水河上,屬于烏江二級支流,距綏陽縣城23km;該工程是列入貴州省“三位一體”規劃中的骨干水利工程之一,建設任務主要是向綏陽縣循環經濟產業園區供水。樞紐工程由大壩、壩頂右岸敞開式溢洪道和取水洞兼放空洞組成,工程等別為Ⅳ等,工程規模屬小(1)型。

      大壩為混凝土面板堆石壩,水庫校核洪水位(P=0.1%)967.70m,總庫容741萬m3,正常蓄水位965.00m,相應庫容為669萬m3,壩頂高程969.00m,最大壩高73.0m。大壩分區主要是混凝土趾板及高趾墻、混凝土面板、墊層區、過渡區、主堆石區和次堆石區;混凝土工程量約為0.92萬m3,填筑工程量約為73.95萬m3。青龍堡水庫工程是遵義轄區在建已建小型水庫中最高的1座,且達到高壩量級,對其開展質量監督性檢測具備代表性。

      3.2質量監督性檢測過程簡述

      2016年12月29日至2017年1月3日,在未通知受檢項目和受檢單位的情況下,遵義市水利工程建設質量安全服務站委托具備水工混凝土甲級檢測資質的檢測單位到現場開展檢測,該檢測單位與本項目施工自檢單位、監理平檢單位均不同體。

      檢測前,已預先得知大壩填筑至945.00m高程,也就是次堆石區填筑即將結束,而且處于填筑備料階段,開展檢測并不影響工程正常施工。面板還達不到澆筑條件。結合本工程特點,筆者與同事在現場擬定了檢測內容和檢測指標:壩體填筑質量檢測墊層料、過渡料、主堆石料、次堆石料的密度、孔隙率、滲透系數、顆粒級配,分別檢測1組(每組3個試坑);趾板及高趾墻混凝土澆筑質量采取回彈檢測,抗壓強度檢測80個測區,并現場明確了檢測布點位置。

      檢測成果表明:(1)壩體填筑料各分區料(墊層料、過渡料、主堆石料、次堆石料)干密度、孔隙率、滲透系數、顆粒級配滿足設計要求(需要指出:墊層料孔隙率雖然滿足要求,但大于過渡料孔隙率,有背反濾原則,說明質量控制上還存在一些不足;檢測成果出具后立即向受檢單位指出并要求下階段施工進行改正)。(2)左岸趾板(933.00~947.00m高程)、右岸趾板(935.00~945.00m高程)、右岸高趾墻(948.00m高程)混凝土抗壓強度滿足設計要求。

      4結語

      選擇青龍堡水庫大壩主體工程進行質量監督性檢測,兼具項目選取代表性、檢測突然性、委托檢測單位獨立性和檢測范圍、檢測指標針對性等幾大要素,對于質量監督機構真實評判工程實體質量有了量化的依據。同時,也充分體現質量監督性檢測的重要性和權威性,對于從事現場質量監督的各位同仁有效開展本項工作有一定的借鑒意義。

      參考文獻:

      [1]SL176—2007.水利水電工程施工質量檢驗與評定規程[S].

      水利工程師評職刊物:《水利水電快報》Express Water Resources & Hydropower Information(月刊)1980年創刊,宗旨是:“廣、快、精、準”地傳遞國外水利水電及主要相關專業的新理論、新技術、新工藝、新材料、新產品和新信息,有重點地報導國內外水利水電行業的重要信息和重大技術問題,促進我國水利事業和水利水電科技的持續、快速發展。

      

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