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    科學技術論文

    管道直飲水的應用現狀及對策分析

    時間:2019年04月04日 所屬分類:科學技術論文 點擊次數:

    摘要:隨著經濟的發展和社會的不斷進步,人們對飲用水的要求不斷提升。從處理工藝、運行維護成本等方面論述了直飲水在住宅小區中的應用現狀,結合直飲水應用中所出現的問題,分析其產生的原因,并對直飲水的推廣應用提出對策和建議。 關鍵詞:直飲水;應用現狀;

      摘要:隨著經濟的發展和社會的不斷進步,人們對飲用水的要求不斷提升。從處理工藝、運行維護成本等方面論述了直飲水在住宅小區中的應用現狀,結合直飲水應用中所出現的問題,分析其產生的原因,并對直飲水的推廣應用提出對策和建議。

      關鍵詞:直飲水;應用現狀;問題;對策分析

    給水排水

      當前水污染問題十分嚴重,一些水廠的處理方法滯后或者處理程度不夠,造成城市供水水質狀況不佳,而水中所含有的一些有機污染物經過氯消毒工藝后容易產生具有致癌性和致突變性的副產物,再加上自來水供水管網老化及滲漏導致水質產生二次污染問題,使得自來水水質難以達到飲用標準。

      隨著我國經濟的發展和人民生活水平的提高,人們對飲用水的水質提出了更高的要求,飲用水的供水方式也呈現多樣化的發展,如市面上所售的瓶裝水、桶裝水以及管道的直飲水等。管道直飲水自上個世紀90年代開始初次應用以來,隨著近20年的發展,已在北京、上海、廣州等城市的住宅小區中得到較大的推廣,是未來飲用水發展的新趨勢。

      1管道直飲水系統

      管道直飲水所采用的水源一般為市政管網中的自來水,將自來水通過水泵送到小區內所設置的凈水設施進一步處理,同時在小區內部單獨設置一套管網系統,處理后的直飲水通過該優質管網系統送到用戶直接飲用。在直飲水系統中,凈水處理設施是整個系統的核心,其處理的效果直接影響用戶能否正常飲用。當前,管道直飲水的處理方法包括預處理、核心處理和后續處理工藝三個部分。預處理主要是去除水中較大顆粒的雜質,以保證后續處理效果,其方法采用機械處理方法,如砂濾或無煙煤過濾,也可采用煤、砂雙層濾料進行過濾。

      核心處理工藝主要采用活性炭吸附、膜過濾等深度凈化處理方法,通過該工藝可以除臭、除色、去除有機污染物及余氯等,使處理后的水質口感良好,并在去除微生物和病毒方面也具有一定的效果。后處理工藝主要為消毒工序。消毒一般采用的方法為臭氧消毒和紫外線消毒,以進一步去除水中的細菌和病毒。

      2管道直飲水的應用現狀

      天津市南開區蘭坪路某高端住宅小區引入管道直飲水供水工程,該工程服務人口為2200人,設計供水量為0.88m3/h,日供水工作時間按12h計算。該直飲水系統所采用的凈水工藝為原水箱→原水泵→石英砂過濾器→活性炭過濾器→保安過濾器→高壓泵→反滲透膜→直飲水水箱→紫外消毒器→供水泵→用水點。考慮到管道輸送過程中,直飲水的二次污染問題,設置循環管將回水返回凈水工藝中的儲水箱,重新進行紫外線消毒處理。

      為了防止碳酸鈣、碳酸鎂等難溶鹽析出結垢,堵塞后續的反滲透膜,在保安過濾器前投加復合阻垢劑。保安過濾器采用不銹鋼外殼,內置5μmPP材質的濾棒。直飲水管道系統選用薄壁不銹鋼管,采用氬弧焊連接,防止在接口處產生細菌造成二次污染問題。為了保障直飲水出水水質達標,在凈水處理間配備水質監測儀器,包括pH值、余氯、水溫等指標,實時監測出水的各項水質指標。

      通過成本估算,計算凈水處理站、管網的建設費用,材料藥劑的購置費用,人工費和修理費用,算得運行成本為8.39元/m3,相比較桶裝水的購置費大大降低,而且飲用水的水質得到明顯改善。廣州國際金融中心生活用水采用直飲水系統,該系統原水由南州水廠提供,考慮到原水水質較好,直飲水所采用的處理工藝為自來水→原水箱→精濾→納濾→臭氧消毒→成品水箱→泵送用戶。

      該系統出水由變頻泵加壓提供到用戶,為防止壓力超壓,在低區設置壓力監控設施。管網系統采用上行下給式,每個分區設置供水管和回水管,避免管道內水滯留而影響水質。本項目所有管材均采用S30408不銹鋼,以保證管道內水質不會造成二次污染。經過系統實際運行,該直飲水系統出水水質達到了飲用水的水質標準要求,且系統運行較為穩定。

      3直飲水的對策分析

      隨著直飲水的廣泛應用,越來越多的小區或者學校等單位開始使用直飲水的供水方式,同時直飲水系統在運行過程中所出現的衛生保障問題、運行成本問題日益受到人們的關注。眾所周知,飲用水量在日常生活用水量中所占的比重一般不超過10%,如果將所有生活用水量的自來水全部按照直飲水的標準進行處理,勢必會大幅增加直飲水的處理成本。

      另一方面,直飲水運營企業在資金投入、儀器配置和管理機制等方面存在較大的差別,導致直飲水的衛生狀況得不到很好的保證,由此直接影響用戶對直飲水的認可度。據相關文獻調查,青島市查全市現共有直飲水學校969所,抽檢的730份水樣中,菌落總數、大腸菌群和硝酸鹽含量指標均合格的水樣有596份,合格率為81.64%。

      衛生設施不齊全、管理制度不健全、處理工藝和管網系統設計不合理、執行規范和標準不統一、直飲水使用率低等問題構成了限制直飲水推廣應用的主要因素。為此,為了進一步推廣直飲水的應用,首先要規范管道直飲水市場,積極引導供水企業健康發展。對企業的技術能力、管理能力以及必要的水質檢測儀器的配置和檢驗人員都應進行具體規定,對供水企業的資質進行有效的監督管理,以保證管道直飲水水質。

      其次,建立供水信息公開制度有效激發和督促企業改進相關技術和服務行為,提高公眾參與意識,建立群眾監督機制。最后,提高用戶對直飲水的認識,加強住宅小區直飲水的宣傳力度,通過信息公開、加強定期檢測和設備維護等方式使民眾放心直飲水的水質,提高直飲水的市場利用率和開通率。

      4結語

      管道直飲水系統作為一種新型的飲水方式,具有衛生安全可控、運行節能環保、飲用健康方便等巨大的優勢,因此倡導城市衛生安全飲水,推廣優質健康的直飲水工程十分必要。但是引入直飲水系統的同時,應更加關注直飲水的運營與維護問題,杜絕水質二次污染,開發新型處理技術,使直飲水工程健康、穩步發展。

      參考文獻:

      [1]趙曉梅.管道直飲水衛生現狀及管理對策[J].疾病監測與控制雜志,2015,9(5):303-304.

      [2]陳霞,黃美珍,葛鵬.住宅小區管道直飲水設計中的思考[J].中國給水排水,2015,31(6):42-45.

      [3]查湘義.住宅小區直飲水技術及效益分析[J].遼寧省交通高等專科學校學報,2009,11(5):10-12.

      [4]林方,王峰,王學峰.廣州珠江新城西塔直飲水系統及游泳池設計[J].給水排水,2013,39(9):73-77.

      相關刊物推薦:《給水排水》(月刊)曾用刊名:(建筑技術通訊)創刊于1964年,是中國建筑科學類中文核心期刊,中國科技論文統計源期刊。設有城市給排水,工業給排水,建筑給排水,施工、材料與設備,策略研討,科技信息綜述,標準規范交流園地,計算機技術,研究生論文摘要,信息市場等欄目。

      

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