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    科學技術論文

    核電站平面測量控制網的優化設計研究

    時間:2019年03月18日 所屬分類:科學技術論文 點擊次數:

    【摘要】針對核電站平面測量控制網布設和施測的特殊性,綜合考慮先驗精度及設計精度要求,論文著重從控制網的基準數據,控制網型、觀測值的權重等方面探討控制網優化設計的方法,為后續核電施工提供借鑒。 【關鍵詞】測量控制網,優化設計,等精度觀測 1引言

      【摘要】針對核電站平面測量控制網布設和施測的特殊性,綜合考慮先驗精度及設計精度要求,論文著重從控制網的基準數據,控制網型、觀測值的權重等方面探討控制網優化設計的方法,為后續核電施工提供借鑒。

      【關鍵詞】測量控制網,優化設計,等精度觀測

    測繪標準化

      1引言

      控制網的優化設計就是使測量控制網方案在滿足精度要求的前提下具有最優性,在滿足控制網精度的同時兼顧網的可靠性及成本等。其中控制網精度主要包括點位中誤差、邊長相對中誤差以及最弱邊長中誤差等;控制網的可靠性是指網中要有足夠數量的多余觀測,使其具有探測觀測中粗差的能力和抵抗觀測值中殘存粗差對平差成果影響的能力;而控制網的成本主要著重考慮埋石和觀測時的費用。因此,探討控制網優化設計的方法在實際工作中有重要的意義。

      2先驗精度的確定

      平面測量控制網測角及測距中誤差先驗值是制定控制網觀測方案的重要設計指標,該指標的合理性和科學性會直接影響控制網的精度。測設控制網前,必須根據點位精度設計要求,合理確定控制網測角及測距中誤差先驗值。由于施工場地及總平面布置約束,邊長相差較大,不利于控制網測角精度控制。為了減少測角誤差,核電平面測量控制網一般采用混凝土墩強制觀測裝置來減少儀器及棱鏡對中誤差【1】。

      根據工程實踐經驗及核電工程測量規范要求,核電平面測量控制網測角中誤差先驗值取1.8"-2.5”即可滿足測設要求。核電測量控制網相鄰點相對坐標中誤差要求為+2mm,目前,核電測量控制使用的儀器測距標稱精度均為lmm+lxl0~D(D為以GPS為中心的方圓直徑,m),測距精度很容易達到,通常用儀器標稱精度作為先驗測距精度,或根據核電控制網測距的平均邊長200—400m,自定義邊長中誤差為1.1~2mm。

      3優化設計主要內容

      測量控制網優化設計的主要工作有4項,即基準設計、一類設計、二類設計以及三類設計。根據平面測量控制網優化設計主要內容的要求,結合核電已有首級及次級控制網的分布情況,以國內某座CPR1000堆型次級加密網點施測為例,進行核電平面測量控制網的優化設計的闡述。

      3.1基準設計

      基準設計(起算數據),是在控制網圖形和觀測值的先驗精度巳定的情況下,選擇起算數據使網的精度達到最高。綜合考慮已有控制點與次級加密點的距離、圖形條件以及相對穩定性等因素,要求已有控制點間相對距離誤差滿足在2mm內的前提下,最終舍去分布于相對距離超出400m的已有控制點,選定YJNPC013及YJNPC014作為控制網的起算點。

      3.2一類設計

      一類設計為控制網圖形時,在控制網成果精度要求及觀測手段可能達到的精度已定的情況下,對控制網圖形設計進行優化,即點位的最佳布設和采用最佳的觀測方案。由于受施工現場總體布置的影響,控制點位的可選擇余地不大。

      3.3二類設計

      點過程中,結合工程的施工進度安排及施工的先后順序,要求保證控制加密網點在后續的施工定位等工程建設中得到最大程度的利用。根據施工經驗及現場總體布置情況。并且初步選定的觀測方案為完全邊角觀測。

      二類設計為觀測值權的設計,是在控制網的圖形和精度要求已定的情況下設計觀測值的精度,進行觀測工作量的最佳分配,使儀器和各種觀測手段得到合理的組織。在核電控制測量中,使用的儀器測角精度均能達到0.5s級,測距精度1+lxl級,觀測值的觀測精度是以邊角等精度觀測處理,并按統一觀測要求進行,即測角:水平角采用全圓方向觀測法用TC2003全站儀或等精度的儀器測2測回,每半測回每方向3次照準讀數,讀數差控制在3”;半測回歸零差控制在3”;同一方向值較差控制在3lI;各方向值取2測回的平均值。

      測距:用TC2003全站儀或等精度的儀器測2測回,每測回照準1次3次讀數取平均值,在測距的同時測定溫度、氣壓、相對濕度。距離讀數精確到0.1mm、溫度精確到I~C、相對濕度精確到1%。各邊長進行對向觀測,并控制經改正后較差在2mm以內。

      3.4三類設計

      三類設計為控制網的改進設計(加密設計),是整個控制網優化設計的重要內容。通過增刪部分觀測值和改變部分觀測值的權,以及增刪及移動部分點位來改善控制網成果的精度。在同樣滿足控制網成果精度的前提下,選擇最優方案,既能保證測量成果質量,又能節省人力物力的投入,減少外業工作量。三類設計主要在測量控制網優化軟件上進行。

      4測量控制

      網優化設計實例根據控制網優化設計內容的要求,應用控制網優化設計軟件對控制網的觀測方案進行評定,選定合適的方案作為施工測量方案作業。根據核電施工測量控制網的先驗精度及點位精度要求,2個已知點5個未知點按完全邊角網進行施測,得到控制網網形及精度統計表、優化設計模擬數據精度表、優化設計模擬控制點成果表、點位誤差表等供測量人員參考。

      根據現場實際情況、圖形條件及施測困難程度考慮刪減部分觀測方向或邊長,重新進行計算得到各種參數進行比較,直到滿意為止。將次級加密網點觀測方案的優化設計初步方案與最終方案的部分數據進行對比。初始方案對具備通視條件的方向及邊長均組織了觀測,總計42個觀測方向和2O個觀測邊長;通過精度估算結果可得初始方案能滿足設計精度要求,但該方案觀測量大。

      經過對方案進行優化,刪減了部分觀測方向及邊長后觀測方向數為31個、邊長數為l6個,且經過精度估算同樣滿足設計精度要求,相對于初始方案,測量外業工作量得到大幅度的降低。最終選定刪減觀測方向及邊長的這套觀測方案次級加密網點觀測方案。

      5結語

      在測量控制網進行施測前進行必要的優化設計,使測量控制網方案在滿足精度要求的前提下具有最優性,及時發現控制網建立過程中的質量風險,改善控制網的觀測方向及邊長的權重。在工程施工中意義重大,測量技術人員應該予以重視。

      【參考文獻】【1】李青岳,陳永奇.工程測量學(修訂本)【M】.北京:測繪出版社,1995.

      測繪方向期刊推薦:《測繪標準化》(季刊)1985年創刊,是我國惟一的以測繪和地理信息標準化為方向的科技期刊,面向全國測繪行業。本刊的特點是:理論實踐并重,普及提高兼顧,面向不同層次,注重技術應用。本刊注重宣傳標準化知識,交流標準化經驗,并刊登了大量的國外先進標準,為促進我國測繪事業和地理信息產業的發展做出了重要貢獻。

      

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