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    教育論文

    應用型本科高校實踐教學問題淺析

    時間:2019年07月05日 所屬分類:教育論文 點擊次數:

    摘要:推進應用型教育不斷壯大,是在中國高等教育大眾化背景下的必然趨勢。從十八大開始,我國政府就在不斷積極努力推進地方本科院校的轉型發展,尋求突破,但在具體轉型工作中又產生較多的困難和問題,尤其是在實踐教學方面存在較多困擾。國內外學者對于應

      摘要:推進應用型教育不斷壯大,是在中國高等教育大眾化背景下的必然趨勢。從十八大開始,我國政府就在不斷積極努力推進地方本科院校的轉型發展,尋求突破,但在具體轉型工作中又產生較多的困難和問題,尤其是在實踐教學方面存在較多困擾。國內外學者對于應用型本科高校中所涉及到的人才培養優勢,教師隊伍建設,課程開設等方面都做出一定成績的研究,但是對于應用型本科高校在實踐教學方面相對研究較為薄弱,因此,筆者選取應用型本科高校實踐教學為本文的切入點,研究應用型高校實踐教學情況,試圖尋找出一條轉型道路。

      關鍵詞:應用型本科高校:實踐教學:轉型發展

    教學與管理

      一、應用型本科高校實踐教學的現狀分析

      應用型本科高校實踐教學好壞是決定其人才培養質量和社會適用性的關鍵環節,實踐教學對于學生未來職業能力的形成和職業道路的發展具有基礎性作用,分析實踐教學環節的現實情況。

      (一)財務管理實踐課程設計現狀

      首先,從課程方案設計中人才培養目標所調查的數據顯示,山西省的應用型本科高校中所選取的財務管理專業在人才培養方案的設計中突出和強調了對于學生應用實踐技能的著重培養,在掌握必要的理論知識基礎上強化專業技能的掌握,培養綜合素質的全面發展;其次,對山西省現有應用型本科高校所開設的財務管理課程設計方案是否合理完善進行問卷調查,通過調查可以發現認為課程設計方案基本合理的約占50%,這也表明仍存在一半多的教師對目前課程體系的安排設計認為存在瑕疵,需要進一步完善和修改。

      (二)應用型本科高校財務管理實踐教學課程結構現狀應用型院校的人才培養方案中對于課程的開設情況是由理論課程和實踐教學兩個不可分割的部分共同構成的,無論是基礎理論課和實踐教學課程,專業的課程設置分為兩大體系:理論教學體系、實踐教學體系。從目前情況來看,其理論課程均占到整體教學比例的75%以上,而實踐教學僅占到不足25%,對于轉型以應用型發展為目標的地方院校來講,確實存在問題。

      (三)應用型本科高校財務管理實踐教學課程實施現狀從現有的山西省各應用型本科高校在財務管理課程實施的師資情況來看,核心教師隊伍主要集中在30-45歲之間,3年以下教齡的教師有,約占樣本調查的36.5%,3-5年教齡的教師約占20%,5-10年教齡的教師約有17%,10年以上的教師約占25%,教師多為年輕新進教師作為學校的教學能力的主力軍;從樣本來看教師的學歷多數以研究生占主體。

      二、應用技術型高校實踐教學存在的問題

      (一)課程方案設計對實踐環節重要性突出不足

      本文在第二部分對財務管理專業人才培養方案進行的具體說明,可以看出應用型本科院校都是以應用轉型為發展目標,但是細細研究分析不難發現應用型本科院校在制度的人才培養方案中仍然存在一些問題,如只強調對技能方面的重點掌握;強調大力培養學生的創新能力但缺乏實際操作的具體指導措施,對于應用型本科院校來說現有的人才培養方案略顯單薄,只是從大的方向上規定了具體指導思想,但卻沒有詳細的實施步驟。

      (二)課程結構存在的問題

      實踐教學相關課程所占課時與學分不足。根據上述的實踐教學比重情況來看,在財務管理專業實踐教學課程的比重占總課時比重不足30%,在這30%的實踐教學活動中又要分為三個部分,一是學校共同開設的公共類實踐課程,約占30%;二是專業實踐的教學活動,約占實踐課程的55%;三是畢業設計的課時,約占15%。從課時的分布情況來看,作為以培養應用型人才為主的院校在課時分配比例上存在不合理,應用型技術院校本應以實踐教學為主,在實踐教學的學時,課時分配中均要得意突出。

      (三)財務管理實踐教學實施中的問題

      師資水平有限,雙師型教師短缺。在教齡方面主要是以3年以下或者10年以上的教師為主,出現了“中間斷層”的狀態,絕大多數的教師都具有較高的學歷,但是既具有高學歷又擁有資格證書的教師卻僅有2人,占5%。這些數據都說明了教師的師資水平有限,還是較為重視理論學習和科研活動。

      三、完善應用技術型高校實踐教學的對策建議

      (一)完善課程方案設計的對策

      在人才培養的具體目標中要突出對應用型人才的技能要求和應用,之前以理論為主的模式已經無法適應經濟社會的新要求。在專業能力和素質的培養中,要結合國內外成功經驗,人才的培養是寬領域的,若將人才培養限定在狹小的空間中,對于四年之后畢業找工作的機會將變得狹窄,對于學生的職業規劃產生負面影響。

      (二)完善課程結構的對策

      增加實踐教學所占課時和學分。根據調查結果顯示,在實踐課程和理論課程之間的比例關系基本處在1:3的狀態,嚴重沒有達到對于應用型本科院校中要求的實踐課與理論課的占比要求。因此,可以借鑒德國應用技術大學在課時比的安排,在德國的FH實踐課程基本都處于60%以上的狀態。

      (三)完善實踐教學實施的對策

      提升師資水平,打造“雙師型”教師隊伍。教師隊伍的強弱直接影響人才培養的強弱,在調查中可以看出,地方轉型院校普遍存在師資力量的短缺,例如教師多以中青年為主,來校時間不長,“雙師型”教師極少等問題。教師隊伍的薄弱要想得到改善,首先,要建立一套關于專業技術教師進修制度,其次,鼓勵和支持教師積極參加學歷提升,技術提升,最后,還可以聘請專業技術人才或專家走進課堂實際指導教師的教學活動,提升教師的教學能力。

      參考文獻:

      [1]王峰.應用型本科院校教師的角色定位[J].蘇州教育學院學報,2017(4).

      [2]余曉玫.地方本科院校建設應用技術大學的改革探索[J].科技世界,2014(5)

      相關教育知識閱讀:高校學生管理文章怎么發表

      高校教師在晉升職稱時可能會發表學生管理論文,也有很多作者咨詢我們的老師這類論文怎么發表,小編在這里介紹:高校學生管理文章選擇投稿期刊之前,應該先以學校文件要求為準,咨詢我們的老師按照要求安排期刊,如果沒有指定期刊,我們老師也會根據以往學生管理論文發表經驗推薦期刊并提供論文發表服務,這也會降低論文難度,需要投稿的可以咨詢我們的老師。

      

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