• 推薦期刊
    在線客服

    咨詢客服 咨詢客服

    客服電話:400-7890626

    咨詢郵箱:hz2326495849@163.com

    教育論文

    基于“雨課堂”的天然藥物學教學研究

    時間:2019年07月04日 所屬分類:教育論文 點擊次數:

    摘要:信息技術的快速發展,不僅改變人們的生活方式,也改變了教學模式。將雨課堂應用于天然藥物學課程教學,能夠拓寬學生學習渠道,延伸課堂教學時間,提高學生學習主動性,改善教學效果。 關鍵詞:雨課堂;天然藥物學;混合式教學 天然藥物學是高等職業教育

      摘要:信息技術的快速發展,不僅改變人們的生活方式,也改變了教學模式。將“雨課堂”應用于天然藥物學課程教學,能夠拓寬學生學習渠道,延伸課堂教學時間,提高學生學習主動性,改善教學效果。

      關鍵詞:“雨課堂”;天然藥物學;混合式教學

    教育教學論壇

      天然藥物學是高等職業教育藥學、藥品生產技術等專業課程體系中的一門專業基礎課程。本課程以天然來源的、未經加工或只經簡單加工的、具有醫療或保健作用的植物、動物和礦物作為研究對象,研究其質量和變化規律,探討其資源和可持續利用。本課程研究對象的內容和范圍很廣,與本草學、植物學、動物學、化學、藥理學和中醫學等學科知識聯系緊密,為學生今后從事天然藥物以及相關領域工作提供理論與技術支撐[1]。

      天然藥物學課程共90學時,其中理論課66學時,實驗課24學時,課時安排緊湊,教學內容難度不大,但涉及面廣,如藥用植物學基礎知識、天然藥物的質量保證等。教學過程中多采用以教師講授為主的教學方式,學生反映每種藥物所列各項內容千篇一律,易學難記。再加上課時有限,學生數量多,教師與學生互動機會少,無法及時了解學生知識掌握情況,往往導致課堂教學效率不高[2]。為了改變這一現狀,我們將“雨課堂”引入天然藥物學課程教學,效果較好。

      1“雨課堂”及其優勢

      “雨課堂”是清華大學在線教育辦公室與“學堂在線”共同研發的智慧教學工具,面向社會免費開放使用。其目的是全面提升課堂教學體驗,讓師生互動更加方便、頻繁。“雨課堂”將復雜的信息技術手段融入PPT和微信,將課外預習、復習與課堂教學緊密聯系起來,讓課堂互動永不下線。“雨課堂”的兩個載體:PPT是課堂教學的主要手段,教師對于PowerPoint的制作、使用十分熟悉;微信雖然出現較晚,但是市場使用率極高,在年輕人的生活中占據非常重要的地位。

      所以,以PowerPoint與微信作為載體的“雨課堂”很快獲得年輕人的認可[3]。“雨課堂”由3部分組成:一是教師在電腦端訪問http://ykt.io/download網頁,下載并安裝最新版“雨課堂”軟件。安裝成功后,打開PowerPoint,雨課堂會在頂端工具欄中出現。教師通過微信掃碼登錄,創建課程和班級后即可進行“雨課堂”教學。

      教學過程中,可以利用“雨課堂”在課件中插入視頻資料。此外,教師還可以在課件中創建選擇題、主觀題等多種類型的試題,課前或課后推送給學生用于預習、復習,也可用于課上測試,及時了解學生學習效果。二是學生通過手機微信接收教師推送的課件、視頻等教學資料,隨時隨地學習。三是教師通過“雨課堂”的數據采集、分析、存儲等功能,掌握學生課前預習、課中學習和課后復習情況[4]。

      2“雨課堂”在天然藥物學課程教學中的應用

      2.1課前

      課前,教師根據教學大綱要求,結合天然藥物學課程內容特點,整理各章節教學重、難點,設計啟發式問題推送到學生手機端,學生自己安排時間,完成課前預習任務,優化課堂教學效果。例如,學習根類藥材三七時,課前推送“服用假三七多人中毒”的新聞視頻,讓學生了解服用假三七對人體的危害,并提出問題:大家都聽說過哪些關于三七的故事或用過哪些含有三七的藥品、日用品?三七的名字有何由來?它與人參有什么關系?白芍和赤芍,都是毛茛科植物芍藥的根,兩者的來源與性狀有何不同?藥效有何區別?花類藥材中的紅花與西紅花名字僅一字之差,它們之間有何關聯?為何市場價格天差地別?學生帶著這些問題去預習,查閱資料,學習更加有針對性,且充滿趣味性,學習效率明顯提高[5]。

      2.2課中

      通過課前預習、查找資料,學生對將要講授的內容已經有所了解。對于課前發布的問題教師可以通過“雨課堂”隨機點名回答,了解學生課前預習情況。根據學生回答情況以及集中出現的問題,教師進行細致講解。上課時學生在手機上同步觀看PPT,解決了后排學生因看不見屏幕而注意力分散的問題。上課過程中學生如對課件內容存在疑問,可在幻燈片頁面點“不懂”或“評論”按鈕,教師根據課堂小結中的提示重新講解,及時調整教學進度。學生也可點擊收藏PPT,以便課下復習。講授完畢后,教師可通過“雨課堂”的隨堂測試功能進行考核,對答題又快又好的學生進行獎勵,以此活躍課堂氣氛、增加師生互動。

      2.3課后

      傳統教學模式下,課后教師與學生很少互動,學生如果有問題,需要單獨找教師咨詢。通過“雨課堂”平臺,教師可在課后將相關試題推送到云端,學生利用課后時間,在手機端完成,間接督促學生復習鞏固。教師對平臺反饋的數據進行分析,可以了解學生的學習情況和知識掌握情況,對課堂教學進度進行調整。教師還可以推送一些拓展資料,拓寬學生知識面[6]。

      2.4考核

      天然藥物學考試成績由3部分組成:過程性考核、實驗考核和期末考試。過程性考核占總成績的20%,其中出勤率占10%,課堂提問測試占10%;實驗考核占總成績的20%;期末考試占總成績的60%。由于教學時數的限制,傳統教學模式下課堂點名和測試無法顧及每個學生,所以考核成績略顯不公平。使用“雨課堂”教學,上課時學生通過微信掃碼進入班級,教師可根據課堂人數及簽到結果掌握學生實際到課情況,節約了點名時間。授課過程中或課后,教師通過雨課堂發布習題,學生通過手機完成,平臺記錄答題次數與準確率,讓過程性考核有據可依[7-8]。

      3結語

      “雨課堂”利用PPT和微信的優勢,將其融入天然藥物學課堂教學,使課前、課中、課后緊密銜接,提高了學習效果,激發了學生自主探究的興趣。網絡與課堂的結合使教學得以延伸,借助“雨課堂”數據收集和分析功能,量化學生學習效果,從而幫助教師及時調整教學方式與進度,提高教學效果。“雨課堂”這種新穎的“以學生為中心”的上課方式對教師提出了更高要求。

      一方面,教師需要課前認真準備相關資料,提煉啟發式問題,對于教學重、難點進行梳理、總結,將其變成學生容易理解的知識碎片,通過課前自學掌握。另一方面,“雨課堂”可以調動學生學習積極性。學生課前、課后會查閱大量資料,這也要求教師不斷更新知識體系,擴大知識面,加強理論學習。教學改革的目標是提高教學效果,如果教師只是單純地將“雨課堂”搬到課堂上,很難吸引學生注意力,不能真正提高教學效果。教師只有不斷充實自己,研究與創新教學方法,使原本枯燥乏味的課堂教學變得生動有趣,使學生從被動學習轉變為主動學習,充分發揮其主觀能動性,才能獲得更好的教學效果。

      參考文獻:

      [1]陳雁.高職藥學專業天然藥物學的教改探索[J].現代醫藥衛生,2016(4):619-620.

      [2]賀百花,胡燦.智能手機在天然藥物學教學中的應用[J].衛生職業教育,2018,36(6):42-43.

      [3]齊興.基于雨課堂授課模式的探究[J].教學與教育信息化,2018(21):245-247.

      [4]鄧亮.基于“雨課堂”混合式教學模式設計與實踐[J].中國人民公安大學學報,2017(2):105-108.

      [5]馬曉惠,董鮮,徐福榮,等“.雨課堂”在《生藥學》教學中的應用[J].中國民族民間醫藥,2018(14):119-121.

      [6]蔣雯音,楊芬紅,范魯寧.雨課堂支持下的智慧課堂構建與應用研究[J].中國教育信息化,2017(10):14-17.

      [7]談俊燕.基于“雨課堂”的《嵌入式系統》課程教學模式改革[J].教育教學論壇,2018(52):95-96.

      [8]劉紀興,劉丹“.雨課堂”下生物學教學與現代教育技術的深度融合[J].生物學教學,2018(10):39-40.

      教師評職投稿刊物:《教育教學論壇》是一本面向教育界、學術界以及大專院校師生的國內外公開發行的國家級教育類學術刊物。是經中華人民共和國新聞出版總署批準,由河北出版集團主管,河北教育出版社、花山文藝出版社主辦、中國教育發展戰略學會終身教育工作委員會協辦的教育類學術期刊,(國內刊號:CN 13-1399/G4 國際刊號:ISSN 1674-9324)。

      

    彩51官网平台彩51官网主页彩51官网网站彩51官网官网彩51官网娱乐 www.xw1122.com | 5456x.com | www.rrrr0076.com | www.922109.com | 3435c.com | www.7893w36.com | x33v.vip | www.h27229.com | www.c6712.com | 35252r.com | www.77784yh.com | 6888zx.com | www.hai3333.com | www.hx1114.com | 11ll8332.com | www.1434o.com | 3522ii.com | www.d948d.com | www.50074i.com | www.xpj5555.cc | www.88266g.com | www.587815.com | 3078j.com | www.hg068008.com | 98955c.com | www.kelake22.com | www.745899.com | 3434ccc.com | www.1117.com | 3685w.com | www.07679i.com | yhw0.cc | www.13555a.com | bbb7570.com | www.224333222.com | www.608587.com | 1463h.com | www.50051s.com | 66671r.com | www.91779w.com | 9949t.com | www.5118.cc | 87578003.xyz | www.hg8561.com | www.721588.com | www.458458.net | www.091wy.com | 73657s.com | www.hg77750.com | 6943300.com | www.7892.com | 2757e.com | www.20000.cc | dh4515.com | www.8c555.com | 44449.com | www.b35bb.com | 4052j.com | www.a81h.cc | 7742pp.com | www.490000.com | hjdc100.com | www.81789.com | 58802s.com | 9694o.com | www.k69096.com | 8036m.com | www.xpj3.net | 5295v.com | www.1007.cc | 36989a.com | www.84499m.com | 500000710.com | www.1368b.cc | www.1005cm-11sadfadssdxczfvadsfasdfasdcac.com | www.2373n.com | 20771188.com | www.561502.com | www.kx151.com | 6220dd.com | www.770405.com | 2776y.com | www.55070m.com | 9090gbh.com | www.32031l.com | 38365v.com | www.36584444.com | 1319345.com | www.hc5859.com | www.3643g.com | 196600.com | www.60468277.com | lh66.com | www.588vip.xyz | 2247z.com | www.849129.com | www.xpj178.com | 5622z.com | www.128088.com | 9506c.com | www.bet365cn.net | www.990960.com | www.331215.com | 1466z.com | www.h2894.com | 7742x.com | www.092wy.com | www.77537i.com | pj13339.com | www.js79900.com | 4323e.com | www.jcai5.com | www.tai55.com | 2334dh.com | www.590561.com | 0606b.com | www.c9661.com | www.22235b.com | 2778aa.com | www.99094y.com | 1077eee.com | www.180121.com | www.888.ps | 7555r.com | www.6832e.com | www.2846t.com | ambjlc.com | www.77jsc.com | www.xpj1111.cc | dzj227.com | www.v2894.com | hhh8827.com | www.99677i.com | www.7415t.com | 22299aa.com | www.548277.com | www.799666s.com | mg6888.com | www.986656.com | www.bmw0004.com | 40033iii.com | www.699925.com | www.3211msc.com | 4136y.com | www.897743.com | www.1008msc.com | 4136y.com | www.411515.com | www.5099kk.com | pjpj.cc | 37570x.com | www.68365l.com | www.hj4888.com | 888898.cc | www.ampj3435.com | www.15b19.net | 3421a.com | www.786587.com | www.4972x.com | 37570q.com | 66223885.com | www.50054b.com | www.3709889.com | 7599nn.com | www.572899.com | www.7225a.com | www.033033c.com | 1649.com | www.3416z.com | www.c44yy.com | 35252r.com | 8827rr.com | www.113179.com | www.xpj2108.com | 3308.com | 59889a.com | www.88806.com | www.5028hg.com | 33846.net | www.83033v.com | www.67jsc.com | www.9679t.com | 13222g.com | www.152918.com | www.3398733.com | www.554363.com | www.33678vv.com | www.333222u.com | w69441122.com | www.634880.com | www.xpj11005.com | www.hg0318.com | 5019333.com | 497944.com | www.9155c.cc | www.bwinyz13.com | www.77537j.com | 0099227.com | 59889a.com | www.33588h.com | www.8967m.com | www.48696.com | 56787zz.com | www.150883.com | www.12455i.com | www.hrtsh.com | www.hg8786.org | 2214ww.com | nn7742.com | www.94580.cc | www.00778x.com | www.i22365.com | ddcp77.com | 915610.com | www.c1669.com | www.81508z.com | www.842211.com | 20772299.com | 3957g.com | 83929.com | www.66ffz.com | www.4156.com | www.333wh.com | www.882236f.com | s14666.com | 65005d.com | www.cp208.com | www.888977.com | www.pj5958.com | www.28758n.com | 4541n.com | 1775y.com | www.658960.com | www.771495.com | www.s69096.com | www.22448.com | hg33382.com | 3405uu.com | 99567d.com | www.544095.com | www.89894l.com | www.56730.cc | www.w75.com | www.3643n.com | 7945zz.com | 9991779.com | 01234zzz.com | www.097067.com | www.005ac.com | www.206269.com | www.35700dd.com | www.110483.com | www.ra5855.com | 500000888.com | 12274466.com | 6403u.com | vns8r.com | www.305644.com | www.44gpc.com | www.93gj01.com | www.7225t.com | www.888711.com | www.330099w.com | x48k.com | js8800.com | 4340h.com | 3650581.com | 866666a.com | 4023w.com | www.501374.com | www.c2656.com | www.50026j.com | www.x33678.com | www.33678gg.com | www.cp0058.com | www.ylg3456.com | www.9679q.com | www.4107l.com | 8294u.com | 922545.com | w86811.com | pj88ss.com | 80368g.com | w88u18.com | 15a22.net | 55zz8331.com | 2140099.com | 249163.com | 20055566.com | bcbm777.com | 80878r.com | www.151376.com | www.550414.com | www.729937.com | www.957806.com | www.720992.com | www5144.com | youle307.com | www.56733v.com | www.8520o.com | 5429o.com | b3644.com | www.86611s.com | 1340.com | www.ven0000.com | www.6805pj.com | www.hg7748.com | www.0203123.com | www.g6tk.com | www.4972aa.com | www.866890.com | www.44msc.la | www.990333.net | www.58505.com | www.xinhao77.com | www.988179.com | www.js906.com | 13222y.com | 11018z.com | 111pj8.cc | 500c6.com | 55797c.com | 37570h.com | 1343.com | www.39695c.com | www.hg5588l.com | www.72747.com | www.25xz.com | www.v32939.com | www.5189222.com | www.99552ii.com | www.4996jl.com | www.8905f.com | www.js02345.com | www.66652f.com | www.0014a.com | www.925831.com | www.338081.com | www.pj2348.com | www.4136m.com | www.184533.com | www.6000hd.com | www.3479u.com | www.850533.com | www.106167.com | 11989f.com | 66185.com | 7240b.com | 2290.com | www.hjdc2000.vip | www.822992.com | www.00618d.com | www.52062y.com | www.73736f.com | www.816142.com | www.893333.com | www.6776cc.com | www.72002.com | www.8499p.com | www.377506.com | 9694u.com | 14341434.com | 256777u.com | www.5599365.com | www.488633.com | www.955244.com | www.2222bj.com | www.hx3355.com | 365063.com | 559805.com | 00vv8332.com | www.js6667.com | www.suncity758.com | www.ba508.com | www.33588s.com | www.345583.com | 3522t.vip | bet99339.com | www.223456r.com | www.www-58944.com | www.30350n.com | www.6769q.com | www.117318.com | zhcp83.com | 500000754.com | www.166249.com | www.89599i.com | www.66332g.com | www.hcw823.com | 30019rr.com | 6868rr.cc | www.sun368.com | www.47506.net | www.055s.cc | 3844qq.com | 8159ggg.cc | www.pj8365.com | www.b456x.com | www.176.ag | www.158606.com | 2566h6.com | www.xx0088.com | www.77731o.com | www.77016.cc | red0035.com | 3008590.com | www.j7700.com | www.5446zz.com | www.26878d.com | P35u.com | bb33338.com | www.yy883.com | www.10999i.com | www.679by.com | 95066666.com | 500000576.com | www.24071.com | www.6939i.com | www.80767i.com | lc99r.com | www.66615hh.com | www.99552bb.com | www.50051c.com | 99306d.com | 2078d.com | www.44400.cc | www.96386c.com | 5144m.com | z7742.com | www.456990.com | www.52022.tv | 1389kk.com | v99932.com | www.rycp164.com | www.5086y.com | r8381.com | www.81866s.com | www.4136u.com | www.901381.com | 8901i.com | www.7188c.com | www.12136n.com | www.196062.com | 32424e.com | www.577177b.com | www.26878d.com | 444000rrr.com | www.280280.com | www.n3410.com | www.177804.com | h51335.net | www.rb362.com | www.022gz.cc | 131c.net | www.y186x.com | www.83033h.com | 78448.com | www.8124j.com | www.4102r.com | 31325p.com | 2997706.com | www.p32939.com | www.534658.com | 33318.com | www.33c668.com | www.811030.com | 55967y.com | www.307msc.com | www.912156.com | 55193.com | www.jw799.com | www.657630.com | yabo1188.com | www.808888r.com | www.32666z.com | www.50064w.com | 60957777.com | www.36896.com | www.hj0555.com | aaa1915.com | www.786555.com | www.628846.com | 55588.com | www.yy17173.com | 00048n.com | www.k8.com | www.660188.com | 5906rr.com | www.55268ss.com | www.29277c.com | 6002x.com | www.1112p.com | www.615121.com | swin6.com | www.u063801.com | 500000858.com | www.7669b.net | www.50054h.com | 9479d4.com | www.50000955.co | www.233896.com | 8742v.com | www.35898e.com | 4995u.com | www.hg3882.com | www.525988.com | 11989.com | www.954321o.com | 6118.com | www.c7205.com | 2443.com | www.58777o.com | www.flff9.com | 9101901.com | www.5552721.com | 58898.com | www.74849.com | www.087069.com | www.ao499.com | www.35918q.com | v4212.com | www.s063801.com | 3678iii.com | www.fbs333.com | www.025517.com | www.1347-02.com | www.rrle5.com | 3169p.com | www.pj56e.com | mmm40033.com | www.js38678.com | 28839c.com | www.162580.com | 848112.com | www.228667.com | www.32123d.com | www.05125f.com | www.771219.com | www.033033u.com | www.8667w.com | feicai0512.com | www.99788f.com | 279009.com | www.6888779.com | 4488g.com | www.hg5029.com | 4465v.com | www.681125.com | 218uu.com | www.33678jj.com | 1259r.com | www.930210.com | 87578004.xyz | www.4521e.com | bllyuepu.cn | www.lhg888.com | 026237.com | www.340388.com | 075nn.com | www.abc288.com | 4018u.com | www.68993257.com | 70118q.com | www.00840v.com | 5443gg.com | www.9818n.cc | 33313e.com | www.hczx6.com | www.hg444.tw | www.560926.com | www.9889msc.com | www.202430.com | www.vns7330.com | 61325588.com | www.22557t.com | 69440066.com | www.15365x.com | 3131b.cc | www.zzyl64.com | 051881.com | www.61233y.com | hg71710.com | www.684050.com | www.2078p.com | 50038s.com | www.9928h.com | 88850kk.com | www.w84c.com | hd55net.com | www.15355x.com | www.yyhbet6.com | www.505162.com | www.81855.com | 1679dd.com | www.93955c.com | 4022j.com | www.35155q.com | www.bg999222.com | www.m.cjcp200.com | www.76775g.com | js16858.com | www.7920p.com | 2019v.cc | www.621411.com | www.ab99900.com | hb56138.com | www.83377.com | 80368s.com | www.hm5688.com | www.4261199.com | 3522ww.cc | www.93955b.com | 80368s.com | www.973776.com | www.079305.com | 6146u.com | www.8998766.com | 90856z.com | www.083037.com | www.feng01.com | 561633.com | www.3552l.com | www.40033.1540033.com | js06.app | www.55717p.com | www.6033e.com | df8n.com | www.i7764.com | 7744kkk.com | www.444070.com | www.zte111.com | 4261.com | www.hczx6.com | www.hg6880.com | 7196ll.com | www.08088.com | www.hg0051.com | 6403.com | www.4833011.com | www.7720m.com | 55967r.com | www.50pay.cc | www.85770y.com | 3404x.cc | www.35898f.com | www.xpj8878.com | wd0000.com | www.737798.com | www.vns994.cc | pj100.vip | www.954321h.com | www.655666e.com | m45638.com | www.73166h.com | www.11446547.com | 3178811.com | www.sfk3.com | www.k89299.com | 657094.com | www.574577.com | www.98698s.com | 0033s.cc | deerdz.com | www.0011sun.com | www.hj0888.com | sbd027.net | 66066.com | 88807a.com | www.bet353657.com | www.140955.com | 5536699.com | www.771246.com | www.5446nn.com | 056601.com | k1.z6528.com | www.76520w.com | www.3709889.com | hd8449.com | www.90305e.com | www.68365.com | www.995h.net | 84498811.com | www.531982.com | www.775398.com | www.48373.com | 4195j.com | www.hr5888.com | www.8850w3.com | 054007.com | 883399f.com | www.zcwf2.com | www.1064.com | www.156250.com | 365vip500.cc | www.635477.com | www.2021b.com | www.21365nn.com | 50099c.com | www.330692.com | www.97828n.vip | www.y18kk.com | 85698z.com | hg57977.com | www.99355.cc | www.o3065.com | www.ylhg1818.com | 0860d.com | www.323518.com | www.55717f.com | www.8786hg.com | 123456kk.cc | 65335.com | www.hm2999.com | www.u1432.com | www.19652.com | xxx01234.com | cc76669.com | www.2632k.com | www.bwinyz02.com | www.xin006.com | 1606766.com | feicai0312.com | www.igcp4.com | www.33678jj.com | www.rrrr0076.com | 0434355.com | 14119455.com | www.385626.com | www.js02347.com | www.aobo9999.com | www.bm1102.vip | 2234.so | 61325533.com | www.55fzc.com | www.30350n.com | www.88zz.cc | P35v.com | 6663805.com | 2997772.com | www.0014v.com | www.33678zz.com | www.pj30352.com | jixiang14.com | 3950m.com | 4195z.com | www.938751.com | www.3775e.com | www.85857s.com | www.88c07.com | 55331c.com | 2698h.com | 3999hd.com | www.901307.com | www.js02349.com | www.28000l.com | www.hg9801199.com | 925160.com | 3522bb.cc | 38238d.com | www.140599.com | www.5522u.cc | www.zzyl67.com | www.58665o.com | www.huangguan1088.com | 500000933.com | c536655.com | 97570yl.com | www.33997i.com | www.c229.vip | www.9646d.com | www.06820p.com | www.02272.com | www.21365bb.com | 0033b.cc | 05596.com | cc7570c.com | hjdc100.com | 3559g.com | www.920564.com | www.77802d.com | www.2566y3.com | www.b3065.com | www.122888a.com | www.682918.com | www.99638.com | www.16878y.com | www.66730.cc | www.7782h.com | www.3552i.com | www.3933k.cc | www.lycp883.com | www.hqcp7.com | www.159888a.com | www.909375.com | www.680477.com | www.548177.com | www.338071.com | www.160883.com | 6647i.com | 444000eee.com | 2998i.com | 45fhyl.com | 50066.com | pjshanxi.com | 287722.com | 38244u.com | 1592z.com | 365qxw.am | 28481000.com | www.56733o.com | www.pjbet888.com | www.6347799.com | www.58767.com | www.36649.com | www.cpdjl.com | www.3066kk.com | www.40288t.com | www.393379.com | www.73166g.com | www.10czj.com | www.669773.com | www.191065.com | aa5360.com | 28824z.com | www.pjc33.vip | www.9989572.com | www.36166k.com | www.976115.com | www.265553.com | 6002u.com | 563930.com | 2222k.com | 4182b.com | 5446q.com | www.hg8662.com | www.674suncity.com | www.ty23023.com | www.bet63j.com | www.1434m.com | www.78949c.com | www.938904.com | www.394689.com | js14g.com | 29918v.com | 50025522.com | 769vv.com | www.pjhebei.com | www.hxcp300.com | www.boh.cc | www.x32031.com | www.8887sy.com | www.2350r.com | www.376163.com | zz4066.com | 58222zz.com | dwyl007.com | www.gh0030.com | www.qiudala.org | www.677256.com | www.l63568.com | www.3478a.cc | www.177074.com | 9149l.com | fxc008.com | 38-365-365.com | www.65471188.com | www.163a66.com | www.120611.com | www.c1371.com | vns1.vip | 3392958.com | 3178h.com | www.56569.com | www.336rrrr.com | www.540066.com | www.c4532.com | 0434311.com | b6857.com | 111122ww.com | www.xpj3210.com | www.3066tt.com | www.60108g.com | www.293399.com | 7068.com | vip56787.com | www.9996kk.com | www.yk222a.com | www.954321w.com | www.602472.com | j15aa.com | 3846zzz.com | www.223456j.com | www.55526n.com | www.0343u.com | www.895594.com | 3333740.com | 55388.com | www.55574.vip | www.89897.com | www.0601k.com | www.377501.com | 38820055.com | 2649yy.com | www.dafa3.cc | www.7036c.com | www.88kcw.com | 7141xx.com | 6150k.com | www.9996xx.com | www.848777i.com | www.66653j.com | 29918c.com | 1104007.com | www.ven0000.com | www.1168g.com | www.77801h.com | bjocfju.cn | ll4119.com | www.lfg777.com | www.57800p.com | www.5854a.cc | 848112.com | nn500c.com | www.hg8562.com | www.398159.com | www.186769.com | 0289q.com | www.3657f.com | www.4996fs.com | www.cb2588.com | 9895e.com | 6175q.com | www.50999a.com | www.6364c.com | e1327.com | 68348.com | www.zte222.com | www.33598w.com | zhcp20.com | 9435.cc | www.3171113.com | www.71233k.com | 131ggg.net | 0245u.com | www.66238.com | www.41518l.com | 7196ss.com | hkmh11.com | www.143291.com | www.okw5.com | btt0707a.com | www.76060t.com | www.p32031.com | www.550164.com | 8037mm.com | www.43288e.com | www.88846.com | 28839n.com | 500000316.com | www.dy4488.com | www.222hy.cc | 90856e.com | www.8768011.com | www.js89k.vip | www.77114o.com | 73055j.com | www.yinhe400.com | www.2632k.com | 7599kk.com | www.77788807.com | www.6688kcd.com | 888.tf | 7779d.cc | www.85jsjs.com | www.806726.com | 3950m.com | www.tyc95.com | www.50080d.com | xpj2229.org | www.32126r.net | www.4102k.com | 8520q.com | 7989b.com | www.7415aa.com | www.701574.com | 66681p.com | www.v1186.com | www.pkfc8.com | 6118p.com | www.35138.com | www.2500o.com | eee5682.com | www.451199.com | www.9149p.com | 08820033com | www.566858.com | www.35918f.com | qjdating.com | www.607788.com | www.7777y.cc | w69441133.com | www.771990.com | www.bai05.com | 8344333.com | www.8222000.com | www.912452.com | 26789.com | www.983888b.com | www.346511.com | 7744ggg.com | www.1754r.com | 69440033.com | www.77795.com | www.48330g.com | 68xinbo.com | www.xin888222.com | www.50080h.com | 81366i.com | www.hg8319.com | www.692092.com | js75ee.com | www.302572.com | 38821199.com | www.cr1118.com | www.81520z.com | 7508h.com | www.899111.com | www.558403.com | 8030o.com | www.3846a.com | 35856app.com | www.z47.cc | www.hy5955.com | m3410.com | www.hg6668.tt | 168cp-y.com | www.4625u.com | www.66907.cc | 888x2.com | www.71071t.com | yz5388.com | www.hg6699.net | www.73031.cc | 4036tt.com | www.1851117.com | 99567.com | www.pj7991.com | www.968566.com | 2455h.com | www.3350.vip | 7599uu.com | www.797009.com | www.109076.com | www.gef888.com | www.26299b.com | 5647v.com | www.3032dd.com | f2850.com | www.766411.com | www.290252.com | www.hg1020.com | www.50026n.com | x111888.com | www.4196l.com | 3844yy.com | www.188614.com | www.68689i.com | www.a17848.com | www.qmfc7.com | 7935u.com | www.4923u.com | 7003n.com | www.704901.com | 1654j.com | www.33336001.com | 2613p.com | www.3170001.com | www.201882.com | www.668567b.com | www.806292.com |