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    機械故障診斷技術的發展現狀和未來趨勢

    時間:2019年06月26日 所屬分類:電子論文 點擊次數:

    摘要:本文闡述了故障診斷技術這門學科的發展背景和社會需求及國內發展狀況。闡釋了故障診斷技術的基本概念,講解了觀察法、聽診法、觸測法等傳統簡易故障診斷手段和對比分析法、數字模型分析法、故障樹分析法、神經網絡診斷法、專家系統診斷法等基于知識的

      摘要:本文闡述了故障診斷技術這門學科的發展背景和社會需求及國內發展狀況。闡釋了故障診斷技術的基本概念,講解了觀察法、聽診法、觸測法等傳統簡易故障診斷手段和對比分析法、數字模型分析法、故障樹分析法、神經網絡診斷法、專家系統診斷法等基于知識的精密診斷方法,并對未來診斷方法的發展趨勢,需要的條件和技術背景做出了說明。

      關鍵詞:故障診斷技術,簡易診斷法,精密診斷法,發展趨勢

    儀器儀表學報

      故障診斷技術是40多年來發展起來的一門新興的學科,自20世紀60年代末美國國家宇航局就創立了美國故障預防小組以來,故障診斷技是術逐漸發展起來的以數學、物理、現代控制論、模式識別、人工智能、人工神經網絡等多學科綜合交叉的新學科[1]。尤其是電子算機技術的應用,已經使其達到了智能化應用的階段。

      1故障診斷的概念及診斷方法發展歷程

      故障診斷技術是檢測設備或系統運行狀態,發現異常情況并作出判斷,為故障分析提供依據。它包括故障檢測、故障分離和故障辨識。故障診斷能夠定位故障并判斷故障的類型及發生時間,進一步分析可確定故障程度。

      1.1傳統簡易的故障診斷法

      常用的簡易狀態監測方法主要有聽診法、觸測法和觀察法等。這些傳統診斷方法與工人的經驗豐富程度息息相關,目前這些簡易的診斷法仍然在許多大大小小的企業中應用。

      1.1.1觀察法

      觀察法是人類“視覺”在工業生產中故障診斷技術中的應用。該方法是最直觀的判斷方法,機械設備上的零部件是否松動、是否產生裂紋產生磨損腐蝕,潤滑系統是否存在跑、冒、滴、漏現象,是否存在干摩擦,這些基本故障都可以一目了然。

      1.1.2聽診法

      聽診法是人類“聽覺”在工業生產中故障診斷技術中的應用。旋轉機械設備在冶金、化工、機械等行業中約占八成,有設備運轉總會產生振動,通過監聽有規律的聲響是否存在有重、雜、怪、亂的異常噪聲,可推斷設備內部出現的松動、失衡等隱患。

      1.1.3觸測法

      觸測法是人類“觸覺”在工業生產中故障診斷技術中的應用。該方法是工人通過人手上的神經纖維對溫度的敏感度,直接觸摸被檢測設備,從而根據感知溫度、振動及間隙的變化做出判斷。同一工況,不同溫度,給工人的手產生的刺激不同,也就給工人溫度信號不同。觸摸時,應試觸后再細觸,以估計機件的溫升情況,通過經驗的積累,判斷出設備在什么機件上出現了什么問題。

      1.2基于知識的精密診斷法

      1.2.1數學模型分析法

      隨著計算機技術和應用數學不斷熔合交叉,利用數學模型從最本質地表征動態過程規律,可根據模型結構和參數的變化,研究設備運動狀態。根據數學模型獲得的預測形態和所測量的形態之間的差異,推算出診斷系統的最小診斷。該方法具有以下優勢:(1)可以利用設計的控制系統數學模型直接模擬分析;(2)無需系統先前運行狀況經歷積累,直接模擬分析,系統運行前排除各類故障;

      1.2.2故障樹分析方法

      故障樹模型是一個基于研究對象結構、功能特征的行為模型;是一種定性的因果模型;是一種體現故障傳播關系的有向圖[2]。該分析方法是把診斷對象的最大故障作為故障分析的目標,查找導致故障的全部要素,按照頂事件、中間事件、底事件逐層展開。由于故障樹分析法把系統故障形成的原因按照總體到部分樹狀細化,符合人類思維方式,思路清晰,結構明了,所以容易掌握和應用。故障樹是在部件關聯和故障模式分析的基礎建立的,嚴重依賴于故障樹信息的完整程度,所以大多與其他診斷方法結合使用。

      1.2.3基于神經網絡的診斷法

      神經網絡模型是在模仿人的大腦神經元結構特性的基礎上,建立的一種非線性動力學網絡系統[3]。具有自學能力、泛化能力和并行計算能力,可實現分類、優化、自組織、聯想記憶和非線性映射等功能。因此神經網絡診斷具有以下特征及優勢:①可用網絡的拓撲結構和權值分布實現非線性的映射;②可用全局并行處理,實現從輸入空間到輸出空間的非線性信息變換;③可用在線數據進一步學習,獲得更精準的系統或故障類型;④可處理繁瑣的非線性問題;⑤可不需要統計模型,進入決策環節。所以作為一種新的診斷方法,在故障領域具有極大的應用潛能。

      1.2.4專家系統的診斷法

      專家系統是一種人工智能計算機程序,它采用大量專家知識和推理方法去求解實際問題。在該系統中,診斷問題的知識構成單獨知識庫而不是在程序或數據結構中,對問題分離、求解具有很好的機動性。一旦推理機制和某個專業領域知識庫已建成,該專家系統就可處理該領域內的各種不同的情況。

      對但不規范化的設備,就無處獲得診斷知識,所以在自適應、學習能力及實時性方面也有局限性。專家系統的構成一般由知識庫、推理機、數據庫、解釋程序、知識獲取程序五部分構成[1]。除了上述的診斷手段外,還有邏輯辨別法、貝葉斯分類法、距離函數分類法模糊診斷法等基于模式識別的方法和各個方法的衍生及融合出的新診斷技術。

      1.3故障診斷技術未來發展趨勢

      1.3.1融合多種智能故障診斷技術

      隨著科技的迅速發展衍生許多新的診斷領域,從單一學科到多種學科的交叉糅合,將多種的診斷技術相結合的混合診斷系統是智能故障診斷研究的一個發展趨勢。融合的幾類形式:專家系統與人工神經網絡相結合,CBR與基于規則系統和神經網絡相結合,模糊邏輯、神經網絡與專家系統的結合等。

      1.3.2智能BIT技術研究

      BIT即機內測試技術,就是系統和設備內部提供故障檢測和隔離的自動測試能力。該技術發展方向主要有兩個方面:與ATE逐步融合,成長為具有診斷能力的智能化監控系統,可實現最優設計、信息獲取、分析處理、綜合決策;與IT相結合,使未來IT系統成為一個集檢測診斷、隔離定位、控制保護于一體機電系統。它既豐富了電子設備的可靠性和檢測維修能力,又能簡化維修,降低成本,具有很好的應用前景。

      1.3.3基于internet的遠程協作診斷技術研究

      隨著微電子、計算機、智能技術和網絡技術的發展,基于因特網的設備故障遠程協作診斷的研究成為故障診斷技術一大趨勢,亦是人工智能領域的關注點。基于internet的遠程協作診斷技術需要具備三點[4]:第一,若干臺中心計算機作為服務器,在關鍵設備上建立狀態監測點,采集數據;第二,建立分析診斷中心,提供遠程技術支持和保障;第三,將診斷技術與網絡技術相結合,實現數據信息、診斷技術的網絡共享,使傳統診斷技術在網絡上遠程運用。

      2結語

      隨著科學技術的不斷發展,設備的集成化,智能化,精密化程度越來越高,設備故障診斷和經濟效益的關系更加密切,對故障診斷技術的發展的要求越來越迫切。因此,故障診斷技術的研究和發展任重而道遠。

      參考文獻

      [1] 鐘秉林,黃仁.機械故障診斷學[M].北京:機械工業出版社,1997.

      [2] 李瓊哲.故障樹分析的數學基礎[J].核工程研究與設計,2009,74(2):64-66.

      [3] 陳果.一種實現結構風險最小化思想的結構自適應神經網絡模型[J].儀器儀表學報,2007,28(10):1874-1879.

      [4] 何嶺松,王峻峰,楊叔子.基于因特網的設備故障遠程協作診斷技術[J].中國機械工程,l999,3(l0):336-338.

      相關刊物推薦:儀器儀表學報(月刊)創刊于1980年,是中國科協主管、中國儀器儀表學會主辦,中國儀器儀表學科最具影響力的學術性刊物。

      

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