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    電子論文

    基于FPGA的電子密碼鎖系統的設計

    時間:2019年04月16日 所屬分類:電子論文 點擊次數:

    摘要:隨著智能家居的快速發展和普及應用,電子密碼鎖已經吸引了研究學界的更多關注。電子密碼鎖具有諸多優點,如智能、安全、高效、可靠等。本文即對一款基于FPGA的電子密碼鎖系統的設計實現進行了研究與論述。研究中,核心闡釋了電子密碼鎖系統的硬件設計,

      摘要:隨著智能家居的快速發展和普及應用,電子密碼鎖已經吸引了研究學界的更多關注。電子密碼鎖具有諸多優點,如智能、安全、高效、可靠等。本文即對一款基于FPGA的電子密碼鎖系統的設計實現進行了研究與論述。研究中,核心闡釋了電子密碼鎖系統的硬件設計,同時又重點分析了該系統的軟件研發流程,最后給出該系統仿真的綜合演示結果。研究表明,本文成果具有一定的理論和實用價值。

      關鍵詞:FPGA;密碼鎖;鍵盤;報警

    電子科學技術

      伴隨著智慧生活和物聯網技術的不斷發展,電子密碼鎖取代傳統鎖具已成為一種必然的趨勢。但目前電子密碼鎖類鎖具在國內運用多偏向于公共場合,普通家庭使用的依然主要為普通鎖具,智能電子密碼鎖是智慧生活的一個重要組成部分。相對于傳統鎖具來說,用FPGA所開發的密碼鎖更加地方便可靠,可以在不需要鑰匙的情況下有效地保護個人空間[1]。

      電子密碼鎖解決了鑰匙被盜配,鎖具被撬等安全隱患。因此研制一款能夠實現智能感知、智能分析及智能控制的低成本、高效率、安全可靠的多功能智能電子密碼鎖具有重要的意義。系統主要包括FPGA、矩陣鍵盤、語音模塊、LCD顯示屏作為系統智能記憶與交互部分。

      1系統工作原理

      用戶通過鍵盤輸入密碼數字并與預先設定好的數字進行對比,以此來判斷輸入的密碼正確與否。根據比對結果FPGA通過I/O口輸出信號控制電磁開關或者提示電路,從而達到控制開鎖或者發出警告的目的。研究中,本設計可剖解為如下模塊:芯片控制部分、按鍵輸入電路、液晶顯示屏模塊、報警電路,電源模塊。

      系統由主控芯片、鍵盤掃描電路、警告線路、顯示線路共同組成[2]。以FPGA為控制核心,通過鍵盤輸入開鎖,經由提示燈提示,系統將輸入的數字與設定的數字進行比較,根據比較結果顯示屏顯示密碼鎖狀態,密碼匹配錯誤超過一定次數后,蜂鳴器進行報警。系統簡單穩定,經濟實惠。

      2硬件設計

      硬件是整個系統的研究基礎,并將直接影響系統的穩定、可靠等方面的重要性能[3]。本系統硬件設備的組成設計可探討分述如下。

      2.1主控芯片

      EP1C3T100的介紹FPGA器件選用Altera公司開發的EP1C3T100C8芯片。EP1C3T100C8是FPGA(可編程邏輯器件)系列的嵌入式器件,不僅用途廣泛、市場應用價值高,而且將其投入到制作生產過程中所需成本低廉,因而受到廣大開發商的青睞。EP1C3T100C8器件主要由4部分組成,分別是:I/O單元、EAB(嵌入式陣列塊)、快速通道線、LAB(邏輯陣列塊)。其中,LAB在系統中主要用來接收設計輸入進行編譯解析后形成的數據格式,LAB接收得多,內存占用過多則會影響整體的工作效率,因而開發另一個存儲渠道,即把接收到的數據格式部分儲存到EAB中。

      2.2報警電路

      系統采用蜂鳴器報警。蜂鳴器工作時所需的電流較大,FPGA的IO端口無法驅動,因此在實際報警設計中引入了放大電路來增強驅動能力。

      2.3LCD1602顯示屏

      LCD1602為工業字符型液晶。在工作中,能在同一時間顯示出16×02、即32個字符。1602液晶,又稱為1602字符型液晶。LCD1602作為液晶體具有一定的物理性質,在工作過程中主要根據控制指令在屏幕上顯示出符號、字母等信息。LCD1602在應用中呈現內容豐富、效果直觀并且價格低廉,常被廣泛用于各類電子產品的設計中,如數碼相機、電子手表等。

      2.4鍵盤控制電路結構與原理

      按鍵有獨立式按鍵和行列式按鍵。在基于FPGA電子密碼鎖的研發中,采用了4×4矩陣鍵盤,總共設置了14個按鍵功能。該次研究將按鍵設計為行列式結構,工作過程中對I/O接口進行逐行逐列的動態掃描,從而形成按鍵回路。也就是說,每個按鍵將基于橫向布局的4根及豎向布局的4根、總共8根I/O口線進行動態掃描,每根I/O接口的工作狀態是相互獨立,互不干擾的。4×4鍵盤占用的I/O資源少,電路配置靈活,并且軟件結構簡單。

      3系統軟件設計

      3.1系統主控制流程

      密碼鎖在進入工作狀態后,當用戶輸入正確密碼并按下確認鍵后才可開門,在門開的狀態下,按下新密碼的設置鍵后,輸入新密碼,再按確認鍵方可對密碼進行重新設置[4]。輸入的密碼在顯示屏上顯示出來,顯示在屏幕最右邊的是最后輸入的數字,每輸入一位數字,密碼在數碼管上的顯示便會往左移一位。系統的初始密碼為123456,也就是接通電源后,按下123456及確認鍵即可開門。

      輸入密碼、并且按下確定鍵后,若此密碼并非正確密碼,此時門仍舊上鎖,顯示屏清屏,計數器加1,系統允許用戶進行再次輸入密碼操作。若密碼再次錯誤,系統反應同上。若密碼輸入錯誤,計數器累計達到4次,揚聲器發出警報聲。直到按下復位鍵后,計數器清0,警報聲停止,系統再次進入工作狀態。

      3.2系統仿真演示結果

      輸入密碼235689,相應鍵值波形為高電平。密碼錯誤,計數器加1;輸入密碼2688,密碼錯誤,計數器加為2;輸入密碼295988,密碼錯誤,計數器加為3;輸入密碼123456,密碼正確,有開門信號,pass為高電平,LED持續發光。采用本文方法進行機器人的助力控制,誤差較小,經過100次測試,得到機器人控制的助力誤差收斂到0.0021,滿足設計需求,有效實現了對機器人的助力控制優化。

      4結束語

      設計仿生機器人助力控制系統,提高機器人助力控制過程自適應匹配能力和集成控制能力。本文提出基于PLC邏輯可編程芯片的仿生機器人助力控制系統設計方案,系統總體結構包括AD采樣模塊、助力傳感調節模塊、PLC邏輯控制及控制指令處理模塊、時鐘中斷模塊、上位機通信模塊和人機交互模塊等,以PLC邏輯可編程芯片作為核心控制芯片進行仿生機器人助力控制系統的多線程控制,采用VIX總線處理技術進行機器人的助力控制信號處理,構建自動控制系統的上位機通信模塊進行遠程自動控制和人機交互設計,以PLC和DSP作為數據處理中心單元,在ARM嵌入式微處理器環境下進行仿生機器人助力控制系統的硬件模塊化開發。研究得知,采用該系統進行機器人的助力控制的自動控制性能較好,機器人助力調節的穩定性較高,自適應能力較強,設計系統在機器人控制中具有很好的應用價值。

      參考文獻

      [1]史瑞東,張秀麗,姚燕安.基于CPG的沙漠蜘蛛機器人多模式運動控制方法[J].機器人,2018,40(2):146-157.

      [2]田耀斌.多模式移動連桿機構理論研究[D].北京:北京交通大學,2015.

      [3]王俊剛,湯磊,谷國迎,等.超冗余度機械臂跟隨末端軌跡運動算法及其性能分析[J].機械工程學報,2018,54(3):18-25.

      [4]陸興華,謝振漢,范太霖.嵌入式多模控制系統的VXI總線數據采集技術[J].電子科技,2016,29(6):182-184,189.

      [5]ZHANGJingmei,SUNChangyin,ZHANGRuimin,etal.Adaptiveslidingmodecontrolforre-entryattitudeofnearspacehypersonicvehiclebasedonbacksteppingdesign[J].IEEE/CAAJournalofAutomaticSinica,2015,2(1):94-101.

      [6]彭程,白越,喬冠宇.共軸八旋翼無人飛行器的偏航靜態抗飽和補償控制[J].機器人,2018,40(2):240-248.

      相關電子期刊推薦:《電子科學技術》期刊的創辦,期望為更好地推動我國電子信息產業的建設與發展,促進我國信息化和工業化的深度融合,提供一個嶄新的電子科技學術交流平臺。《電子科學技術》期刊,將在現有眾多電子科技類各自注重突出相關專業和行業的科技學術刊物基礎上,更加突出前沿探索性、“兩化”融合性和創新實踐性。期望通過3~5年的努力,成為國家科技類核心刊物。

      

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